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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Psychology

PSYB07H3

data

Winter

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CHAPTER 12 General Purposes of Statistics i Used to organize and summarize information so that the results can be communicated ii Help to answer the questions that initiated the research by determining exactly what conclusions are justified based on the results that were obtained Statistics refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing summarizing and interpreting informationPopulation the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study Sample a set of individuals selected from a population usually intended to represent the population in a research study Parameter a characteristic that describes a population a value usually numerical that describes a population A parameter may be obtained from a single measurement or it may be derived from a set of measurements from a populationtypically every population parameter has a corresponding sample statistic Sample Statistic a characteristic that describes a sample Data are measurements or observations Data Set is a collection of measurement or observations Datum is a single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score2 STATISTICAL PROCEDURES TO ORGANIZE AND INTERPRET DATA a Descriptive StatisticsConsists of statistical procedures that are used to simplify and summarize dataScores are often organized in a table or a graph so that entire set of scores can be seen b Inferential StatisticsSummarizes a set of scores by computing an averagea single descriptive value for the entire setPurpose of inferential statistics is to use sample data to reach general conclusions about populations Techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the population from which they were obtained However a sample provides only limited information about the populationthere is usually some discrepancy between a sample statistic and corresponding population parameterSampling Error the discrepancy or amount of error that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameterSample statistics vary from one sample to another and typically are different from the corresponding population parameters

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