Attitudes and Attitude Change
- an evaluation of a person, object or idea
- They are evaluative based on the fact that they consist of a positive or negative
reaction to something.
- An attitude is made up of three components:
1) Affective component consisting of emotional reactions toward the attitude
object (ex. Another person or social issue)
2) cognitive component consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude
3) Behavioural component consisting of actions or observable behaviour toward
the attitude object.
Affectively based attitude
- An attitude based primarily on people’s emotions and feelings rather than on an
objective appraisal of pluses and minuses about the attitude object.
- Ex falling in love with someone regardless of their past violent history, or
liking this one type of car brand despite its gas consumption and etc.
- People tend to have strong positive beliefs about an attitude object, is spite of
having negative beliefs.
- Affectively based attitudes have certain key features in common:
1) They do not result from a rational examination of the issues
2) They are not governed by logic
3) They are often linked to people’s values, so that trying to change them challenges
Cognitively based attitude
- An attitude based primarily on a person’s beliefs about the properties of an
- The purpose of this kind of attitude is to classify the pluses and minuses of an
object so we can quickly tell whether it is worth our while to have anything to do
- Attitude is based on your beliefs about the objective merits of particular brands.
Behaviorally Based Attitude
- An attitude based primarily on observations of how one behaves toward an
- Under certain circumstances people don’t know how they feel until they see how
- Ex Assuming you like to exercise of you always seem to be going for a run and
heading over to the gym frequently. Explicit Attitudes
- Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report; they are what we
think of as our evaluations when someone asks us a question.
- Ex Sam considers that all people from different backgrounds are considered
- Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious.
- Ex When same is around Pakistani people, he starts to feel a bit of hatred and
nervousness because he grew up in society that generally shunned Pakistani
people. His feelings towards these people occur unintentionally.
Theory of Planned Behaviour
- A theory that the best predictors of a person’s planned, deliberate behaviours are
the person’s attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms, and perceived
behavioral control. In others words, the best predictors people’s behaviour is their
intention (whether they intend to perform the behaviour in question)
- Only specific attitudes toward the behaviour in question can