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Chapter 4

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 4 NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR Nonverbal communication: communicating without the use of words, intentionally or unintentionally  Not limited to the members of our species  We mimic other people’s facial expression if we like them consider them to be a member of our group o This may reflect empathy or the capacity to feel what they are feeling  Mirror neurons: respond when we perform an action and also when we see someone else performing the same action;ex: they are activated when we see someone crying just they would if we were crying  Nonverbal cues help people express their feelings, emotions, and personality  Some expressions compliment verbal message and some contradict like sarcasm FACIAL EXPRESSION OF EMOTION  Darwin said that there are some primary emotions that are encoded and decoded in the same by all the human beings anger, happiness, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise universal  ARE THEY ACTUALLY UNIVERSAL? o The level of accuracy that participants must achieve in order to conclude that the expression is perceive in the same way across cultures o James Russell and Beverly Fehr found that the judgement of a given expression depended on what other faces were present o The situation a person is in can also effect how the expression is read common in Asians WHY IS DECODING SOMETIMES INACCURATE  Affect blend: one part of the face is expressing one emotion and another part another emotion  People try to hide their emotions because they don’t want others to know how they actually feel  Culture can effect too  Suppressing emotions lead to increase in blood pressure, more negative emotions. CULTURE AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION  Display rules: are particular to each culture and dictates which nonverbal behaviours are appropriate to display o In Canada men cannot cry o In Japan women can have wide smile/laugh o In India fear and anger is not encouraged  Differences in display rules among cultures can be lead to misunderstandings and conflicts when people form different cultures interact  Different ways: facial expression, eye contact, personal space and touching, hand and head gestures  Emblems: gestures for which there is a clear and well-understood definition not universal  Same gesture can be present in 2 different cultures but mean something completely different GENDER AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION  Women are better at decoding and encoding when the person is telling the truth  Men are better at detecting lies  Social role theory: because men and women have different social roles, men working outside and women working at home, they develop different sets of skills and women are considered to be more polite, nurturing. IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORIES  Implicit personality theory: when we know one trait of one person, we use our schema to determine what other qualities the person has people’s ideas of what kinds of traits go together CULTURE AND IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORIES  IPT is strongly tied to culture and passed on from generation to generation  The language people speak, influence how they think about the world ATTRIBUTION THEORY: how we infer the causes of other people’s behaviour THE NATURE OF THE ATTRIBUTIONAL PROCESS  Internal attribution: inferring the behaviour to an internal cause; the person’s personality, attitude.  External attribution: inferring the cause of the behaviour as something about the situation  People generally prefer internal over external attribution THE COVARIATION MODEL Kelly  Examine multiple instances of behaviour, occurring at different times and situations  Three key information: consensus, distinctiveness and consistency  Consensus information: how other people behave towards the same stimulus  Distinctiveness information: how the actor respond to other stimuli  Consistency information: how fre
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