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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.doc

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 11: Aggression What is aggression? It is the intentional behavior aimed at causing either or physical or psychological pain. The intention to hurt is what defines aggression, rather than the act itself. Hostile aggression: an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain Instrumental aggression: aggression as a means to some goal other than caus- ing pain. E.g. a football player is being instrumentally aggressive to win the game not to cause pain. Is aggression inborn or learned? Some people say we are naturally brute and that our laws and order we learn to curb our aggressive nature Some people say that we are naturally gentle and the restrictive society brings out the hostility and aggressiveness out of us. Eros: instinct towards life and Thanatos: instinct towards death leading to ag- gressive actions. He talks about how we all have to left off some of our aggression or else it will build up and we will explode. Is aggression instinctual? Situational? Optional? Evolutionary argument: Aggression is genetically programmed in men because it allows them to perpetuate their genes. To assert their dominance over other men for one, women like it??  And to protect what is theirs for the second reason. They do it because they are jealous Males are most aggressive at their peak reproductive years teens and 20’s about issues of respect back in the day that’s how women chose their men, the most aggressive but nowadays women are attracted to power, wealth and celebrity rather than brute force. Aggression among the lower animals: People believe that cats hate rats and want to eat them, but this guy raised a cat and rat together and they became friends and the cat didn’t eat him or any other rat for that matter. This shows that training helped what if the rats were grown in isolation? The re- search showed that they were aggressive to other rats because of their instincts aka aggressive behavior can be modifies by experience but aggression does not need to be learned. comparing chimps and bonobos, the chimps are more aggressive and willing to fight and kill other chimps for food and water because its good for survival but the bonobos are not like that they make love when they first interact at the feeding ground then they eat. All species have aggressive tendencies but they also have strong inhibitory mech- anisms that enable them suppress aggression. Aggression is an optional strategy its only expressed in certain situations depend- ing on previous social experience and the social context it find itself in. Aggression and Culture Depending on culture the levels of aggression vary. European history is full of wars while some places that are portrayed as having primitive people have complete peace like the Lepcha of Sikkim and the baka of central Africa. Changes of aggression over time Changing social conditions frequently lead to striking changes. The Iroquois of Northamerica were peaceful till the British came then they turned into ferocious warriors attacking the neighboring villages in order to trade. Aggressiveness almost certainly came about because a social change produced increases in competition. Aggression and Culture of Honor: aggression values in honor societies were the men are defined by power, tough- ness and ability to protect property honor societies think it’s ok for men to be violent against their wife if she cheated and she can’t say about the violence plus she has to be loyal. Southern Americans are more aggressive than Northern ones even in baseball game they tend to show more aggressive almost 40% more to assert their manhood or get players back. Canadian bouncers are especially aggressive especially when they think their au- thority or masculinity is being threatened. There is also a macho subculture where by males bullied one and another without provocation Neural and Chemical Influences on Aggression  The Amygdala is the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behav- ior, when it is stimulate, docile organisms become violent in contrast when the neu- ral activity is blocked violent organisms become docile. The impact of neural mechanisms can be modifies by social factors  Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulse, too lit- tle causes people to be aggressive. Criminal have less than the average person Testosterone is a male sex hormone associated with aggression. Too much of it causes aggressive behavior; men incarcerated have more testosterone than regular guys especially if convicted of violent crimes. Gender and aggression men are more aggressive than women because they have more testosterone than woman boys are more overtly aggressive while girls are more covertly aggressive with backstabbing and gossiping We can better understand when both males and females are provoked, when both are they both act aggressively. However in everyday situations men are more ag- gressive because they are more likely to view ambiguous situations as being provocative and therefore act aggressively. Men are incarcerated for violent crimes than women almost a 5:1 ratio. Does the target make a difference?  Men’s aggression is generally directed at other men either friends or strangers and its usually at bars or public places, they are also usually involves drinking. Women’s aggression is more likely to be directed at a romantic partner a
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