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Chapter 6

PSYB10 Lec4_Chapter6and7.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lec 4 Chapter 6 pg 153-229 Attitudes & Persuasion • Attitudes • Definition - An evaluation of a person, object or idea - Consist of POSITIVE or NEGATIVE feeling towards something - (alt.def.) a like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something • ABCs • Affectively based attitudes - Attitudes based more on emotions and feelings - What you feel about something • Behaviourally based attitudes - Attitude based on observations of how one behaves towards and attitude - Ex. when asking someone if they like to exercise and they say “I guess I do because I keep going out for runs, etc” - What you are likely to do • Cognitively based attitudes - Attitudes based primarily on a person’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object - Objectively based - Classify pluses and minuses - What you think about something • What goes into an attitude • Valence - Bipolar dimension from good to bad • Strength - Intensity of the attitude • Attitude types • Explicit attitudes - Attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily report and state in words • Implicit attitudes - Involuntary, uncontrollable, unconscious(sometimes) attitudes we have • Attitudes and Behaviour • Theory of planned behaviour - Theory that the best predictor of people’s behaviour is their intention -  is determined by: - their attitude toward the behaviour, - their subjective norms - and their perceived behavioural control • Cognitive dissonance - the uncomfortable feeling we experience when our behaviour is at odds with our attitudes or when we hold attitudes that conflict with one another - when we do something that makes us feel stupid or immoral - produces discomfort • Overjustification effect - if one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings • Justification of Effort - tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain • External justification o a person’s reason or explanation for dissonant behaviour that resides outside the individual o ex. telling a friend their band is really good when in actuality, they are not  receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment • Internal justification o reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (attitudes, behaviours) • Counter-attitudinal advocacy o when a person states an opinion or attitude that runs counter to their private belief or attitude o believing the lie we told • Insufficient punishment o dissonance when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object o ex. making a child stop bullying using a small punishment  they will begin to question why they bully, dissonance created • Rationalization Trap - tendency to reduce dissonance by justifying our behaviour that … can lead to stupid or immoral actions • Self-affirmation theory o when people reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelated to the threat o ex. doing something bad and then reminding self that you just did something good (like getting a high grade on a test or donating blood, etc) • Post-decision dissonance o dissonance that is inevitably aroused after a person makes a decision; is reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternatives • Liking • Liking - positively valenced attitude • Balance Theory - to reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance” between our opinions and those of otheres • Attitude change • Persuasion / Persuasive communication - persuasive communication: communication advocating a particular side of an issue - persuasion: the altering of an existing attitude or the adoption of a new attitude • Yale Attitude Change Approach - the study of conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages; researchers in this tradition focus on “who said what to whom”; aka, the source of the communication, the nature of the communication and the nature of the audience • Methods of persuasion • Heuristic-systematic model of persuasion o theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: people process either the merits of the arguments(systematic processing) or are swayed by factors that are peripheral to the msg itself. Ex. “experts are always right” (heuristic processing) • Routes of Persuasion / Elaboration Likelihood Model o theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: • Central route - when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication - same as SYSTEMATIC PROCESSING
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