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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 Classical Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentThe Psychoanalytic Viewpoint We are driven by motives and conflicts of which we are largely unaware and that our personalities are shaped by early life experiences Psychosexual theory Freuds theory that states that maturation of the sex instinct underlies stages of personality development and that how parents manage childrens instinctual impulses will determine the traits children come to displayPsychosexual theory Freud viewed the newborn as a seething cauldronan inherently selfish creature who is relentlessly driven by two kinds of instincts that he called Eros and ThanatosInstinct an inborn biological force that motivates a particular response or class of responsesEros Freuds name for instincts such as respiration hunger and sex that help the individual to surviveThanatos Freuds name for inborn selfdestructive instincts that were said to characterize all human beingsUnconscious motives Freuds term for feelings experiences and conflicts that influence a persons thinking and behaviour but lie outside the persons awarenessRepression a type of motivated forgetting in which anxietyprovoking thoughts and conflicts are forced out of conscious awarenessThe ways in which parents have managed these sexual and aggressive urges in the first few years of life play a major role in shaping their childs conduct and characterThree components of PersonalityId psychoanalytic term for the inborn component of the personality that is driven by instinctsEgo psychoanalytic term for the rational component of the personality consciousSuperego psychoanalytic term for the component of the personality that consists of ones internalized moral standardsStages of Psychological Development Freud thought that sex was the most important of the instincts because he discovered that the mental disturbances of his patients often revolved around childhood sexual conflicts that they had repressed Phallic Stage Freuds third stage of psychosexual development from 3 to 6 years of age in which children gratify the sex instinct by fondling their genitals and developing an incestuous desire for the parent of the other sexOedipus Complex Freuds term for the conflict that 3 to 6yearold boys experience when they develop an incestuous desire for their mothers and at the same time a jealous and hostile rivalry with their fathers
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