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PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimintation

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 5  Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another  Sexism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another  Stereotypes: beliefs or associations that link whole groups of people with certain traits or characteristics  Prejudice: negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group  Discrimination: negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group  Group: two or more people having at least one of the following characteristics: o Direct interactions with each other over a period of time o Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race or other attributes o Shared, common fate, identity or a set of goals  Ingroups: groups that we identify with  Outgroups: groups that are other than our own Racism Modern Racism  A subtle form of prejudice that surfaces in direct ways whenever it is safe, socially acceptable, or easy to rationalize  Many people are racially ambivalent o Want to see themselves fair but still harbor feelings of anxiety and discomfort concerning other racial groups  May show an opposite bias – responding more favorably to blacks than whites Implicit Racism  Operates unconsciously and unintentionally  Implicit Association Test (IAT) – measure of unconscious attitudes, it is derived from the speed at which people respond to pairings of concepts o Black or white with good or bad  Implicit racial bias found in young children Interracial Perceptions  Lack of contact between people of different racial and ethnic groups  Stigma of being perceived as racist is especially troubling  Heightened amygdala activity in response to racial outgroup faces  White participants showed greater amygdala activity Interracial Interactions  Participants were more likely to exhibit cardiovascular reactions associated with feelings of threat if the confederate was black  Whites may try to regulate their behaviours in order to not appear racist  Metastereotypes: thoughts about the outgroup’s stereotypes about them and worry about being seen as consistent with these stereotypes  Interaction with a black individual caused individuals to be cognitively and emotionally exhausted because they are afraid of appearing racist  White participants who were concerned with appearing prejudiced had increased stress responses during an interracial encounter and increased behavioral anxiety  Those worried about appearing prejudiced displayed more physiological and behavioral distress after repeated interracial encounters Chapter 5  Trying to avoid appearing racist can take so much effort and self-focus that it ironically decreases one’s awareness of the other person present Sexism Ambivalent Sexism  Stereotypes of women tend to be more positive than men’s  Ambivalent sexism: form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative resentful both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings, and affectionate, chivalrous, but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings o Hostile sexism: characterized by negative, resentful feelings of women’s abilities o Benevolent sexism: characterized by affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the potentially patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection  Women feel favorably toward men who exhibit benevolent sexism Sex Discrimination  Women are paid less than their male counterparts Intergroup and Motivational Factors Realistic Conflict Theory  Direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups  Prejudice in the world is driven by the realities of competition  Perception in the mind of an individual who is not engaged in any real conflict o Realistic competition for resources may be imagined  Relative deprivation: feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to others Social Identity Theory  Ingroup favoritism: tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups  Social identity theory: people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self esteem o A personal identity o Various collective or social identities that are based on the groups to which we belong o Boost their own personal achievements though affiliations with successful groups  Derive pride from out connections with others even if we don’t receive any direct benefits  Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism  Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self-esteem  A blow to one’s self-image evokes prejudice and the expression of prejudice helps to restore self-image  Greater ingroup identification has been associated with stronger social identity effects Culture and Social Identity  Collectivists are more likely than individualists to value their connectedness and interdependence with people and groups around them o Personal identities are tied closely with their social identities  People from collectivist cultures are less likely than people from individualist cultures to show biases favoring their ingroups Motives Concerning Intergroup Dominance and Status  People want to belong to groups that are small enough for them to feel unique  Ingroup loyalty are more intense for groups that are in the minority  Social dominance orientation: a desire to see one’s ingroups as dominant over other groups and willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups Chapter 5  Promote self-interest  System justification: processes that endorse and legitimize existing social arrangements o Protects the status-quo o May admire and show outgroup favouritism Cognitive and Cultural Factors Social Categorization  Classification of persons into groups in the basis of common attributes  Natural and adaptive  Overestimate the differences between groups and underestimate the differences within groups  People tend to learn features about majority groups earlier than features about minority groups  Outgroup homogeneity effect: perceivers assume that there is a greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of one’s own group o Don’t notice subtle differences among outgroups because we have little personal contact with them o People often don’t encounter a representative sample of outgroup members  Orbitofrontal cortex – correlated significantly with the degree to which the participants reported preferring the ingroup faces over the ou
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