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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - psyb10

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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PSYB10 1 Chapter3:TheSocialSelf (p.54–95) o Thecapacityforself-reflectionisnecessaryforpeopletofeelasiftheyunderstandtheirownmotivesandemotionsandthecausesoftheir behaviour o Theselfisheavilyinfluencedbysocialfactors ­ Puttingonafaceforothers o ThischapterexaminestheABCsoftheself:Aforaffect,Bforbehaviour,andCforcognition THESELF-CONCEPT o ‗cocktailpartyeffect‘—thetendencyofpeopletopick apersonallyrelevantstimulusoutofacomplexenvironment ­ Ex.Noisyroombutyouhearsomeoneattheendoftheroommentionyourname o Tothecognitivepsychologist,thisphenomenonshowsthatpeopleareselectiveintheirattention.Tothesocialpsychologist,italsoshowsthattheselfis animportantobjectofourownattention. o SelfConcept –Thesumtotalofanindividual‖sbeliefsabouthisorherownpersonalattributes o Markus ­ Theself-conceptismadeupofcognitivemoleculescalled self-schemas:beliefsaboutoneselfthatguidetheprocessingofself-relevant information ­ Ex.Bodyweightpeoplewhoregardthemselvesasextremelyoverweightorunderweight,orforwhombodyimageisaconspicuousaspect oftheself-concept,areconsideredschematic.Thosewhodonotregardtheirownweightasextremeorasanimportantpartoftheirlivesare aschematiconthatattribute ElementsoftheSelf-Concept o Istheselfsospecialthatitisuniquelyrepresentedintheneuralcircuitryofthe brain?Andistheselfauniquelyhumanconcept,ordootheranimalsalso distinguishtheselffromeverythingelse? IstheSelfSpeciallyRepresentedintheBrain? o Oursenseofidentityisbiologicallyrooted o LeDoux ­ Arguesthatthesynapticconnections withinthebrainprovidethebiologicalbaseformemory,whichmakespossiblethesenseofcontinuity thatisneededforanormalidentity o Feinberg&Keenan ­ Describehowtheselfcanbetransformedandevencompletelydestroyedbysevereheadinjuries,braintumours,diseases,andexposureto toxicsubstancesthatdamagethebrainandnervoussystem. o Theselfisaframeofreferencethatpowerfullyinfluencesourthoughts,feelings,andbehaviours. DoNon-HumanAnimalsShowSelf-Recognition? o Exceptforhumanbeings,onlygreatapes—chimpanzees,gorillas,andorangutans—seemcapableofself-recognition o Gallup ­ Placeddifferentspeciesofanimalsinaroomwithalargemirror onlyapesbegantopicktheirteethusingthemirror,makefacesfor entertainment selfrecognition ­ Paintedreddotonbrow,uponseeingtheredspot,onlytheapesspontaneouslyreachedfortheirownbrows—proofthattheyperceivedthe imageastheirown o Byusingasimilarreddyetest,developmentalpsychologistshavefoundthatmosthumaninfantsbegintorecognizethemselves inthemirrorbetween theagesof18and24month o Today,manyresearchersbelievethatself recognitionamonggreatapesandhumaninfantsisthefirstclearexpressionoftheconcept‗me‘ o Recentresearchsuggeststhatcertainintelligentnon-primatescanalsorecognizethemselves bottlenosedolphins,killerwhales,falsekillerwhales, asianelephants WhatMakestheSelfaSocialConcept? o Theabilitytoseeyourselfasadistinctentityisanecessaryfirststepintheevolutionanddevelopmentofaself-concept o Thesecondstepinvolvessocialfactors. PSYB10 2 o Mead ­ Weoftencometoknowourselvesbyimaginingwhatsignificantothersthinkofusandthenincorporatingtheseperceptionsintoourself concepts o Wheredotheirself-conceptscomefrom?Fivesourcesareconsidered:introspection,perceptionsofourownbehaviour,theinfluencesofotherpeople, autobiographicalmemories,andtheculturesinwhichwelive. Introspection o Self-knowledgeisderivedfromintrospection,alookinginwardatone‖sownthoughtsandfeelings. o Nisbett&Wilson ­ Foundthatresearchparticipantsoftencannotaccuratelyexplainthecausesorcorrelatesof theirownbehaviour.Thisobservationforced researcherstoconfrontathornyquestion:Doesintrospectionimprovetheaccuracyofself-knowledge? ­ No,thatintrospectioncansometimesimpairself-knowledge ­ Afterparticipantsweretoldtoanalyzethereasonsforhowtheyfelt,theattitudesthattheyreportednolongercorrespondedtotheirbehaviour ­ Humanbeingskeepmentallybusyprocessinginformation,whichiswhyweoftenfailtounderstandourownthoughts,feelings, and behaviours. o AffectiveForecasting –Theprocessofpredictinghowonewouldfeelinresponsetofutureemotionalevents. o Wilson&Gilbert ­ Consistently,theyfoundthatpeopleoverestimatethestrengthanddurationoftheiremotionalreactions,aphenomenontheycalltheimpact bias o Therearetwopossiblereasonsfortheimpactbiasinaffectiveforecasting 1. Whenitcomestonegativelifeevents—suchasaninjury,illness,orbigfinancialloss—peopledonotfullyappreciatetheextenttowhichour psychologicalcopingmechanismshelp ustocushiontheblow.  Theresultisaself-otherdifferencebywhichwetendtopredictthatotherswillsufferevenlongerthanwewill 2. Whenweintrospectabouttheemotionalimpactonusofafutureevent—say,thebreakupofacloserelationship—webecomesofocusedon thatsingleeventthatweneglecttotakeintoaccounttheeffectsofotherlifeexperiences PerceptionsofOurOwnBehaviour o Bem ­ Self-PerceptionTheory– Thetheorythatwheninternalcuesaredifficulttointerpret,peoplegainself-insightbyobservingtheirown behaviour ­ Peopledonotinfertheirowninternalstatesfrombehaviourthatoccurredinthepresenceofcompellingsituationalpressuressuchrewardor punishment ­ Peoplelearnaboutthemselvesthroughself-perceptiononlywhenthesituationaloneseemsinsufficienttohavecausedtheirbehaviour. o Goldstein&Cialdini ­ Youlearnsomethingaboutyourselfbyobservingthebehaviourofsomeoneelsewithwhomyoucompletelyidentify Self-PerceptionsofEmotion o FacialFeedbackHypothesis –thehypothesisthatchangesinfacialexpressioncanleadtocorrespondingchangesinemotion o Facialfeedbackcanevokeandmagnifycertainemotionalstates.It‖simportanttonote,however,thatthefaceisnotnecessarytotheexperienceof emotion. o Howdoesfacialfeedbackwork¤Lairdarguesthatfacialexpressionsaffectemotionthroughaprocessofself-perception:‗IfI‖msmiling,Imustbe happy. o Otherexpressivebehaviours,suchasbodyposture,canalsoprovideuswithsensoryfeedbackandinfluencethewaywefeel o Youremotionalstateisrevealedinthewayyoucarryyourself o Butisitalsopossiblethatthewayyoucarryyourselfaffectsyouremotionalstate?Yes Self-PerceptionsofMotivation o Intrinsicmotivationoriginatesinfactorswithinaperson ­ Peoplearesaidtobeintrinsicallymotivatedwhentheyengageinanactivityforthesakeoftheirowninterest o Extrinsicmotivationoriginatesinfactorsoutsidetheperson ­ Peoplearesaidtobeextrinsicallymotivatedwhentheyengageinanactivityasameanstoanend,fortangiblebenefits.i.e.money,grades o OverjustificationEffect –Thetendencyforintrinsicmotivationtodiminishforactivitiesthathavebecomeassociatedwithrewardsorotherextrinsic factors. PSYB10 3 o Researchshowsthatwhenpeoplestartgetting‗paid‘foratasktheyalreadyenjoy,theysometimesloseinterestinit o Amabile ­ Consistently,theyfoundthatpeoplearemorecreativewhentheyfeelinterestedandchallengedbytheworkitselfthanwhen theyfeel pressuredtomakemoney,fulfillobligations,meetdeadlines,wincompetitions,orimpressothers o Ifextrinsicbenefitsservetoundermineintrinsicmotivation,shouldteachersandparentsnotofferrewardstotheirchildren? ­ Italldependsonhowtherewardisperceived—andbywhom.Ifarewardispresentedintheformof verbalpraisethatisperceivedtobe sincere,orasaspecial‗bonus‘forsuperiorperformance,thenitcanactuallyenhanceintrinsicmotivationbyprovidingpositivefeedback aboutcompetence—aswhenpeoplewincompetitions,scholarships,orapatonthebackfrompeopletheyrespect o Lacetera&Macis ­ Thenotionthatintrinsicmotivationisunderminedbysometypesofrewardbutnotothers ­ Theyfoundthatdonorswhoweretoldtheymightreceiveasmallamountofmoneyforgivingbloodweremorelikelytoindicatethatthey wouldsubsequentlystopdonatingtheirblood,comparedtodonorswhowereofferedavoucherforthesameamount. ­ Suggestedthiswasbecauseanofferofmoneyledtothedonorsfeeling―greedy‖;onewaytominimizethatfeelingwouldbetostopdonating altogether o Individualdifferencesinmotivationalorientationtowardworkmustalsobeconsidered o Forpeoplewhoarehighlyfocusedontheachievementofcertaingoalsextrinsicinducementssuchasgrades,scores,bonuses, trophies,and thethrillof competition—tendtoboosttheirintrinsicmotivation InfluencesofOtherPeople o Cooley ­ Theoryofthelooking-glassselfemphasizedthatotherpeoplehelpusdefineourselves SocialComparisonTheory o Kalin&Berry ­ Changesomeone‖ssocialsurroundings,andyoucanchangethatperson‖sspontaneousself-description. o Thisrelianceondistinguishingfeaturesinself-descriptionindicatesthattheselfis‗relative,‘asocialconstruct,andthatwedefineourselvesinpartby usingfamilymembers,friends,acquaintances,andothersasabenchmark o Festinger ­ SocialComparisonTheory– Thetheorythatpeopleevaluatetheirownabilitiesandopinionsbycomparingthemselvestoothers ­ Socialpsychologistshaveputthistheory tothetest,focusingon2questions: 1. Whendoweturntoothersforcomparativeinformation?  Peopleengageinsocialcomparisoninstatesofuncertainty,whenmoreobjectivemeansofself-evaluationarenot available 2. OfallthepeoplewhoinhabitEarth, withwhomdowechoosetocompareourselves?  Whenweevaluateourowntasteinmusic,valueonthejobmarket.Orathleticability,welooktootherswhoare similar—ordifferent—tousinrelevantways—achoicethatwemakeautomatically,withoutnecessarilybeingaware ofit ­ .Whilewemaygenerallycompareourselvestothosewhoaresimilartous,thereareexceptionstothisrule Two-FactorTheoryofEmotion o Peopleseeksocialcomparisoninformationtoevaluatetheirabilitiesandopinions o Schachter ­ Foundthatwhenpeoplewerefrightenedintothinkingtheywouldreceivepainfulelectricshocks,mostsoughtthecompanyofotherswho wereinthesamepredicament ­ Yetwhentheywerenotfearful,andexpectedonlymildshocks,orwhenthe‗others‘werenot takingpartinthesameexperiment, participantspreferredtobealone ­ Coulditbethatwhenpeopleareuncertainabouthowtheyfeel,theiremotionalstateisactuallydeterminedbythereactions ofothersaround them?Theresearchersproposedthattwofactorsarenecessarytofeelaspecificemotion.First,thepersonmustexperiencethesymptomsof physiologicalarousal—suchasaracingheart,perspiration,rapidbreathing,andtighteningofthestomach.Second,thepersonmustmakea cognitiveinterpretationthatexplainsthesourceofthearousal.Andthatiswherethepeoplearounduscomein:Theirreactionshelpus interpretourownarousal. ­ Two-FactorTheoryofEmotion –Thetheorythattheexperienceofemotionisbasedontwofactors:physiologicalarousalandacognitive interpretationthatarousal. PSYB10 4 ­ Epinephrineexperiment:Drug-uninformedparticipantsreportedfeelingrelativelyhappyorangrydependingontheconfederate‖s performance. Inthedrug-informedandplacebogroups,however,participantswere,asexpected,lessinfluencedbythesesocialcues. ­ Whenpeopleareunclearabouttheirownemotionalstates,theysometimesinterprethowtheyfeelbywatchingothers ­ Forotherstoinfluenceyouremotion,yourlevelofphysiologicalarousalcannotbetoointense,orelseitwillbeexperiencedasaversive— regardlessofthesituation AutobiographicalMemories o Memoriesshapetheself-concept o Self-conceptshapesourpersonalmemoriesaswell o Whenpeoplearepromptedtorecalltheirownexperiences,theytypicallyreportmoreeventsfromtherecentthanfromthedistantpast o Fewexceptionstothisrecencyrule 1. olderadultsretrievealargenumberofpersonalmemoriesfromtheiradolescenceandearlyadultyears—a‗reminiscencebump‖ 2. peopletendtoremembertransitional‗firsts.‘ o Brown&Kulik ­ Coinedthetermflashbulbmemoriestodescribetheseenduring,detailed,high-resolutionrecollections,andspeculatedthathumansare biologicallyequippedforsurvivalpurposesto‗print‘thesedramaticeventsinmemory. ­ Theseflashbulbmemoriesarenot necessarilyaccurate,orevenconsistentovertime o Bylinkingthepresenttothepastandprovidinguswithasenseofinnercontinuity,autobiographicalmemoryisavitalpart of—andcanbeshapedby— ouridentity o Memorycanbebiasedratherthanobjective CultureandtheSelf-Concept o Theself-conceptisalsoinfluencedbyculturalfactors o Twocontrastingculturalorientations: 1. Individualism– one‖spersonalgoalstakepriorityovergroupallegiances 2. Collectivism -thepersonis,firstandforemost,aloyalmemberofafamily,team,company,church,andstatemotivatedtobepartofa group—notdifferent,better,orworse o Individualismandcollectivismarenotsimpleoppositesonacontinuumandthat thesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweencountriesdonotfitasimple pattern o Individualismandcollectivismaresodeeplyingrainedinaculturethattheymouldourveryself-conceptionsandidentities o Markus&Kitayama ­ MostNorthAmericansandEuropeanshaveanindependentoftheself – theselfisanentitythatisdistinct,autonomous,self-contained,and endowedwithuniquedispositions ­ MuchofAsia,Africa,andLatinAmerica,peopleholdaninterdependentviewoftheself -theselfispartofalargersocialnetworkthat includesone‖sfamily,co-workers,andotherswithwhomoneissociallyconnected ­ IdentifiedtwointerestingdifferencesbetweenEastandWest.Thefirstisthatpeopleinindividualisticculturesstrivefor personal achievement,whilethoselivingincollectivistculturesderivemoresatisfactionfromthestatusofavaluedgroup.Thus,whereasNorth Americanstendtooverestimatetheirowncontributionstoateameffort,takecreditforsuccess,andblameothersforfailure,people from collectivistculturesunderestimatetheirownroleandpresentthemselvesinmoremodest,self-effacingtermsinrelationtoothermembersof thegroup o Researchconfirmsthatthereisacloselinkbetweenculturalorientationandconceptionsofthe self o Culturalorientationscaninfluencethewayweperceive,evaluate,andpresentourselvesinrelationtoothers o Ross ­ Demonstratedthatitispossibletoactivatedifferentculturalmindsetsthatinturnaffectbiculturalindividuals‖self-perceptions ­ Itappearsthateachofushavebothpersonalandcollectiveaspectsoftheselftodrawon—andthatthepartthatcomestominddependson thesituationwearein. o Peng&Nisbett ­ NotethatpeopleinEastAsianculturesthinkindialecticaltermsaboutcontradictorycharacteristics—accepting,forexample,thatapparent opposites(suchasblackandwhite,friendandenemy,strongandweak)cancoexistwithinasinglepersoneitheratthesame timeorasa resultofchangesovertime ­ Dialecticism–AnEasternsystemofthoughtthatacceptstheexistenceofcontradictorycharacteristicswithinasingleperson PSYB10 5 SELF-ESTEEM o Self-Esteem– Anaffectivecomponentoftheself,consistingofaperson‖spositiveandnegativeselfevaluations. o Althoughsomeofus havehigherself-esteemthanothers,afeelingofself-worthisnotasingletraitetchedpermanentlyinstone o Rather,itisastateofmindthatvariesinresponsetosuccess,failure,changesinfortune,socialinteractions,andother lifeexperiences o Becausetheself-conceptismadeupofmanyselfschemas,individualstypicallyviewpartsoftheselfdifferently:Somepartstheyjudgemore favourably,orseemoreclearlyorasmoreimportant,thanotherparts o Justasindividualsdifferaccordingtohowhighorlowtheirself-esteemis,theyalsodifferintheextenttowhichtheirself-esteemisstableorunstable TheNeedForSelf-Esteem o Leary&Baumeister ­ Peopleareinherentlysocialanimalsandthatthedesireforself-esteemisdrivenbythismore primitiveneedtoconnectwithothersandgain theirapproval ­ Oursenseofselfesteemservesasa‗sociometer,‘aroughindicatorofhowwe‖redoingintheeyesofothers.Th
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