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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - PSYB10

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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PSYB10 1 Chapter5:Stereotypes,Prejudice,andDiscrimination THENATUREOFTHEPROBLEM:PERSISTENCEANDCHANGE o Stereotypes,prejudice,and discriminationcontinuetoplayaprofoundly importantanddestructive—thoughoftenmoresubtle—roleincontemporary life o WhiteAmericanstendtoperceivegreaterracialprogressthanotherAmericans,inpartbecausetheformerseethingsmorefromtheperspectiveofhow farthingshavecome,whereas thelatterseethingsmorefromtheperspectiveofhowfarthecountrystillhastogo DefiningOurTerms o Racism–Prejudiceanddiscriminationbasedonaperson‖sracialbackground,orinstitutionalandculturalpracticesthatpromotethe dominationofone racialgroupoveranother o Attheindividuallevel,asthisdefinitionreflects,anyofuscanberacisttowardanyoneelse.Attheinstitutionalandculturallevels,incontrast,some peopleareprivilegedwhileothersareadvantaged o Sexism–Prejudiceanddiscriminationbasedonaperson‖sgender,orinstitutionalandculturalpracticesthatpromotethedomination ofonegenderover another o Stereotypes– Abelieforassociationthatlinksawholegroupofpeople withcertaintraitsorcharacteristics o Prejudice– Negativefeelingstowardpersonsbasedontheirmembershipincertaingroups o Discrimination -Negativebehaviourdirectedagainstpersonsbecauseoftheirmembershipinaparticulargroup o Group– Twoormorepersonsperceivedasrelatedbecauseoftheirinteractionswitheachotherovertime,membershipinthesamesocialcategory,or commonfate o Ingroups– groupswithwhichanindividualfeelsasenseofmembership,belonging,andidentity o Outgroups –groupswithwhichanindividualdoesnotfeelasenseofmembership,belongingoridentity Racism:CurrentFormsandChallenges o ZundelblamedBlacksinCanadaforrapesanddrive-byshootings,andreportedlystated,‗I‖mobjectingtoallowinghordesofraciallyunabsorbable populationstoinvadethelivingspaceofaspecificrace.‘ o HespenthisyearsinCanadadistributinghateliteratureuntilhismailingprivilegesweresuspended,andhealsomaintained acontroversialwebsite wherehefreelypostedhisracistviewsaboutwhomeverhepleased. o Katz&Braly ­ FoundthatwhitecollegestudentsviewedtheaveragewhiteAmericanassmart,industrious,andambitious.Yettheysawtheaverageblack Americanassuperstitious.Ignorant,lazy,andhappy-go-lucky o TheelectionofBarackObamahasbeenseenbymany,bothwithinandoutsidetheUnitedStates,asasignificantsignofracialprogress ModernRacism o ModernRacism– Aformofprejudicethatsurfacesinsubtlewayswhenitissafe,socially acceptable,andeasytorationalize o Accordingtotheoriesofmodernracism,manypeopleareraciallyambivalent. Theywanttoseethemselvesasfair,buttheystillharborfeelingsof anxietyanddiscomfortconcerningotherracialgroups o Hodson ­ Readabout eitherawhiteorablackdefendantinarobberycase. ­ Whentheevidenceagainstthedefendantwasstrongandunambiguous:studentsjudgeswhiteasguilty ­ However,whenthesituationwasmoreambiguous:studentsjudgedtheblackdefendantsignificantly morelikelytobeguilty o ModemRacismScale ­ DesignedtomeasuresubtleformsofracisminWesternEurope ­ Peoplewhoarehighlymotivatedtocontroltheirexpressionsofprejudicemayscorelowonthem,eveniftheydoharborprejudicedattitudes ­ Partofthelimitationofthesescalesisthattheyexplicitlyaskrespondentsabouttheirattitudestowardvariousgroups,whenresearchtodayis showingmoreandmorehowimplicittheseattitudescanbe ImplicitRacism o Tocontrastitfromexplicitracism,many scholarscallracismthatoperatesunconsciouslyandunintentionally implicitracism PSYB10 2 o Undetectedbyindividualswhowanttobefairandunbiased,implicitracismcanskewtheirjudgments,feelings,andbehaviours,withoutinducingthe guiltthatmoreobvious,explicitformsofracismwouldtrigger. o Implicitracismmaybesubtle,butitseffectscanbeprofound o Eberhardt ­ Foundthatincasesinvolvingawhitevictim,themorethedefendant‖sphysicalappearancewasstereotypicallyblack,themorelikelyhe wouldbesentencedtodeath ­ Itisveryunlikelythatmanyofthejudgesorjurorswereconsciouslyawareofthisbias,buttheevidencerevealssignificantdiscrimination. o ImplicitAssociationTest(IAT) –Acovertmeasureofunconsciousattitudes,itisderivedfromthespeedatwhichpeoplerespondtopairingsof concepts,suchasblackorwhitewithgoodorbad. ­ ItmeasuresimplicitracismtowardBlacks,forexample,bycomparinghowquicklyorslowlyparticipantsassociateblackcues (suchasa blackface)withnegativeandpositiveconcepts,comparedtohowquicklyorslowlytheymakethesamekindsofassociationswithwhite cues. o Regardlessofthespecificmeasure,socialpsychologistshavefoundthatindividuals‖degreeofimplicitracismsometimespredictsdifferencesin their perceptionsofandreactionstoothersasafunctionofrace.Thisisparticularly trueregardingverysubtle,oftennonverbalbehaviours,suchashowfar onechoosestositfromorhowmucheyecontactonemakeswithamemberofadifferentrace InterracialPerceptions o Thedividesbetweenracialandethnicgroupstendtobemorevast andmaypromotestrongerfeelingsofhostility,fear,anddistrustthanthedivides basedonothersocialcategories,suchasthosebasedongender,appearance,age,andsoon. o Acombinationoflesscontact,strongernegativeemotions,andgreateranxiety aboutappearingracistmakesinterracialperceptionandinteraction particularlychallengingandfraughtwithemotionandtension. o Hugenberg ­ Participantswithrelativelyhighlevelsofimplicitbias,asmeasuredbythelAT,sawtheblackfacesasstaying hostilelongerinthefirststudy, andbecominghostilemorequicklyinthesecondstudy,relativetothewhitefaces.ParticipantswhoshowedrelativelylowracismontheIAT didnotshowthisbias. ­ ParticipantswhoshowedastrongracebiasonthelATweremorelikelytocategorizearaciallyambiguousfaceasblackifthefaceexpressed hostilitythanifitexpressedhappiness. o Researchusingbrain-imagingtechniqueshasshownthatjustperceivingamemberofaracialoutgroupmaytriggerdifferent,moreemotionalreactions thanperceivinganingroupmember. o Hart ­ TheymonitoredthebrainactivityofwhiteandblackparticipantsusingfMRItechniquewhiletheyshowedtheparticipantspicturesof individualsfromtheirracialingrouporoutgroup ­ ThefMRIrevealeddifferentialresponsesintheamygdala ­ Picturesofracialoutgroupmemberstendedtoelicitstrongeramygdaleactivationthandidpicturesofingroupmembers. o Theeffectofblackfacesonwhiteparticipants‖amygdaleactivitymaydependonthedirectionoftheeyegazeofthefacesdepicted o RichesonandTrawalter ­ foundthatwhiteparticipantsshowedgreateramygdaleactivityandpaidgreaterattentioninresponsetoblackthanwhitefaces,butonlyifthe facesdisplayeddirecteyegaze ­ Theeffectswereeliminatedifthetargets‖eyeswereclosedorappearedtobelookingelsewhere ­ Reflectthefactthatdirecteyecontactfromanoutgroupmemberismuchmorelikelytoconveyathreat InterracialInteractions o Ifperceptionsofamemberofaracialoutgroupareassociatedwithvariousbiasesandemotionalreactions,interracialinteractionsmaybeallthemore complexandchallenging. o Mendes ­ Participantsweremorelikelytoexhibitcardiovascularreactionsassociatedwithfeelingsofthreatiftheconfederatewasblackthanifthe confederatewaswhite. o Voruauer ­ Individualsengaginginintergroupinteractionsoftenactivatemetastereotypes,orthoughtsabouttheoutgroup‖sstereotypes aboutthem,and worryaboutbeingseenasconsistentwith thesestereotypes. o Peoplesometimestrytoavoidinterracialinteractionforfearofappearingracistorbeingtreatedinaracistway.Thisavoidantbehaviourinturncan havetheironiceffectofmakingthingsalltheworse PSYB10 3 Sexism:AmbivalenceandDoubleStandards o Genderstereotypesaredistinctfromvirtuallyallotherstereotypesinthattheyareprescriptiveratherthanmerelydescriptive.Thatis,theyindicatewhat manypeopleinagivenculturebelievemenandwomenshouldbe o Anotherwaythatsexismisuniqueconcernsthedegreetowhichtheingroupandoutgroupmembersinteract.Sexisminvolvesmoreambivalence betweenpositiveandnegativefeelingsandbeliefsthanistypicalofracismandotherformsofprejudiceanddiscrimination AmbivalentSexism o Overall,stereotypesofwomentendtobemorepositivethanstereotypesofmen o Glick&Fiske ­ AmbivalentSexism- aformofsexismcharacterizedbyattitudesaboutwomenthatreflectbothnegative,resentfulbeliefsandfeelings,and affectionate,chivalrous,butpotentiallypatronizingbeliefsandfeelings ­ Ambivalentsexismconsistsoftwoelements: 1. Hostilesexism,characterizedbynegative,resentfulfeelingsaboutwomen‖sabilities,value,andabilitytochallengemen‖spower; 2. Benevolentsexism,characterizedbyaffectionate,chivalrousfeelingsfoundedonthepotentiallypatronizingbeliefthatwomen needanddeserveprotection ­ Thetwoformsofsexismarepositivelycorrelated ­ Peoplefromcountrieswiththegreatestdegreeofeconomicandpoliticalinequalitybetweenthesexestendtoexhibitthemosthostileand benevolentsexism. Sex Discrimination:DoubleStandardsandPervasiveStereotypes o Goldberg ­ Whenthematerialwassupposedlywritten byJohnMcKayratherthanJoanMcKay,itreceivedhigherratings,aresultthatledGoldbergto wonderifevenwomenwereprejudicedagainstwomen o Morethanahundredstudieslaterindicatethatpeoplearenotgenerallybiasedbygenderintheevaluation ofperformance o Sexdiscriminationduringtheearlyschoolyearsmaypavethewayfordivergingcareerpathsinadulthood. o Then,whenequallyqualifiedmenandwomencompeteforajob,genderconsiderationsenterinonceagain,assomeresearchindicates thatbusiness professionalsfavour menforso-calledmasculinejobsandwomenforso-calledfemininejobs o Evenwhenwomenandmenhavecomparablejobs,theoddsaregoodthatthewomenwillbepaidlessthantheirmalecounterparts andwillbe confronted withaso-calledglassceilingthatmakesitharderorimpossibleforwomentorisetothehighestpositionsofpowerinabusinessor organization CAUSESOFTHEPROBLEM:INTERGROUPANDMOTIVATIONALFACTORS FundamentalMotivesBetweenGroups o Afundamentalmotivethatevolvedinourspeciesandinotherprimatesistheneedtoaffiliatewithrelativelysmallgroupsof similarothers o Theseaffiliationsservethemorebasicmotiveofselfprotection.Oneimplicationofthisistheevolvedtendency inpeopletodividetheworldinto ingroupsandoutgroups—‗us‘versus‗them‘—andtofavourtheformeroverthelatterinnumerousway o Schaller ­ Demonstratedthatwhenpeople‖smotivetoprotectthemselvesisaroused,theyaremorelikelytomisperceivethe emotionofanoutgroup– butnotaningroupmember—asanger ­ Hypothesizedthatbeinginacompletelydarkenvironmentwouldtriggerpeople‖sself-protectivemotivemorethanbeinginabright environment,andthatthiswouldactivatestereotypesaboutthe threateningnatureofoutgroups o Accordingtooptimaldistinctivenesstheory,forexample,peopletrytobalancethedesiretobelongandaffiliatewithothers,ontheonehand,andthe desiretobedistinctanddifferentiatedfromothers,ontheotherhand RobbersCave:aFieldStudyinIntergroupConflict o Inacampthereweretwogroupsthatparticipatedinastudyofcompetitivenessandcooperation o Theyhadtocompeteinatournamentandwaspromisedatrophy,theybecamehostileandmostattemptstohelpthemcooperatewithoneanotherfailed. Theonethingthatdidworkwasanintroductionofa SuperordinateGoal– Asharedgoalthatcanbeachievedonlythroughcooperationamong individual;orgroups. o Ex.Camptruckwasfixedtobreakdown,andbothgroupshadtoworktogethertopushitupahill RealisticConflictTheory PSYB10 4 o Theviewthatdirectcompetitionforvaluablebutlimitedresourcesbreedshostilitybetweengroupsiscalled realisticconflicttheory o Chancesare,agooddealofprejudiceinthe worldisdrivenbytherealitiesofcompetition o Moretoprejudicethanrealcompetition ­ ‗realistic‘competitionforresourcesmayinfactbeimagines ­ Peoplemaybecomeresentfulofothergroups RelativeDeprivation– thebeliefthattheyfarepoorlycomparedwithothers SocialIdentityTheory o Tajfel ­ Participantsweretoldtoallocatepointstootherparticipantsthatcouldbecashedinformoney ­ Participantsconsistentlyallocatedmorepointstomembersoftheirowngroupthantomembersoftheother group.Thispatternof discrimination,calledingroupfavouritism–thetendencytodiscriminateinfavourofingroupsoveroutgroups ­ Thepreferenceforingroupsissopowerfulthatitseffectscanbeelicitedsimplybythelanguageweuse.Ex.We,us,our (positiveemotions) o Tajfel&Turner ­ Proposed socialidentitytheory–Thetheorythatpeoplefavouringroupsoveroutgroupsinordertoenhancetheirself-esteem ­ Eachofusstrivestoenhanceourselfesteem,whichhas2components 1. Apersonalidentity 2. Variouscollectiveorsocialidentitiesthatarebasedonthegroupstowhichwebelong BasicPredictions o Twobasicpredictionsarisefromsocialidentitytheory: 1. Threatstoone‖sself-esteemheightentheneedforingroupfavouritism 2. Expressionsofingroupfavouritismenhanceone‖sself-esteem o Fein&Spencer ­ Proposedthatthreatstoone‖sselfesteemcanleadindividualstouseavailablenegativestereotypestoderogatemembersof stereotyped groups,andthatbyderogatingotherstheycanfeelbetter aboutthemselves ­ Participantsreceived(+)or(-)feedbackandthenevaluatedafemalejobapplicantbelievedtobeItalianorJewish ­ Therewere2keyresults: 1. Participantswhoseselfesteemhadbeenloweredby(-)feedbackevaluatedthewomanmorenegativelywhenshewasJewishthan whenshewasItalian 2. (-)feedbackparticipantsgiventheopportunitytobelittletheJewishwomanshowedpost-experimentincreaseinselfesteem SituationalandIndividualDifferences o Greateringroupidentification,forpie, hasbeenfoundacrossmanystudiestobeassociatedwithstrongersocialidentityeffects o Ex.Lebaneseparticipantsintheirstudywhomoststronglyfeltidentifiedwiththegroup‗Arabswereespeciallylikelytoreportsupportingterrorist organizations CultureandSocialIdentity o Culturaldifferencescanalsoinfluencesocialidentityprocesses o Collectivistsaremorelikelythanindividualiststovaluetheirconnectednessandinterdependencewiththepeopleandgroups aroundthem,andtheir personalidentitiesaretiedcloselywiththeirsocialidentities. o However,accordingtoanumberofresearchers,peoplefromcollectivistculturesarelesslikelythanpeoplefromindividualistculturestoshowbiases favouringtheiringroupsinordertoboosttheir self-esteem o Althoughtheytendnottobedrivenbyself-esteemdesires,collectivistsdoshowsomebiasesfavouringtheiringroups-indeed,beingorientedstrongly towardone‖singroupmaybeconsideredahighlydesiredandvaluedwayofbeing o Collectivistdrawsharperdistinctionsbetweeningroupandoutgroupmembersthanindividualistsdo MotivesConcerningIntergroupDominanceandStatus o Brewer&Pickett ­ Observedthatingrouployaltyandoutgroupprejudicearemoreintenseforgroupsthatareinthe minoritythanformembersoflargeand inclusivemajorities ­ Individualsingroupsthatbenefitfromadvantagesthatothergroupsdonothavemaybemotivatedtojustifyandprotectthoseadvantages. ­ SocialDominanceOrientation - adesiretoseeone‖singroupsasdominantoverothergroupsandawillingnesstoadoptculturalvaluesthat facilitateoppressionoverothergroups PSYB10 5 ­ Socialdominanceorientationspromoteself-interest ­ Groupswithasystem-justifyingorientationthinkthatthesystemisfairandjust;theymayadmireandevenshowoutgroupfavouritism— towardmorepowerfuloutgroups CAUSESOFTHEPROBLEM: COGNITIVEANDCULTURAL FACTORS SocialCategorization o Socialcategorization - Theclassificationofpersonsintogroupsonthebasisofcommonattributes o Withsomanythingstopayattentiontoinoursocialworlds,wecansavetimeandeffortbyusingpeoplesgroupmemberships tomakeinferencesabout them o Childrenlearnaboutsocialcategoriesquiteearlyandthereforebecomeawareofandusestereotypeswhentheyareveryyoung o Categorizingpeopleleadsustooverestimatethedifferencesbetweengroupsandtounderestimatethedifferenceswithingroups o Thedistinctionsbetweensocialcategoriesmaybeseenasmorerigid,evenmorebiologicallyrooted,thantheyactuallyare o Biologists,anthropologists,andpsychologistshavenotedthatthereismoregeneticvariationwithinracesthanbetweenthem o Eachofusisamemberofmultiplesocialcategories,butsomecategorizationsparticularlyrace,gender,andage—aremorelikelytoquicklydominate ourperceptionsthanothers o Otherfactorssuchascognitiveandmotivationalfactorscaninfluencehowwecategorizeothers IngroupsVersusOutgroups o Thestrongtendencytocarvetheworldinto‗us(ingroups)and‗them‘(outgroups)hasimportantconsequences o Onecognitiveconsequenceisthatweexaggeratethedifferencesbetweenouringroupandotheroutgroups ­ Becauseperceivedsimilaritiesareminimizedandperceiveddifferencesaremaximized,stereotypesareformedandreinforced o Anotherconsequenceisaphenomenonknownasthe outgrouphomogeneityeffect,wherebyperceiversassumethatthereisagreatersimilarityamong membersofoutgroupsthanamongmembersofone‖sowngroup o Lackoffamiliarityandlackofdiversityofexperienceswithoutgroup membersaretworeasonswhy―theyalllookalike,‘butthere‖smoretothestory thanthat o Researchusingbrain imagingorcognitivemethodsfoundthatmerelycategorizingpeopleasingrouporoutgroupmembersinfluenceshowperceivers processinformationaboutthem,even iffamiliarityisheldconstant o Bavel ­ The participantsshowedgreaterneuralactivityinparticularareasofthebrain.Suchastheorbitofrontalcortex,whenthefaceswerelabeledas beingfromaningroupthanwhentheywerelabeledasbeingfromanoutgroup ­ Itisinterestingtonotethatthecategorization offacesasingrouporoutgrouphadamuchstrongereffectonorbitofrontalcortexactivityandon preferenceforthefacesthandidthevariableofwhetherthefaceswerewhiteorblack DehumanizingOutgroups o Perceiversmaynotonlyprocessoutgroupmembers‖facesmoresuperficially—theyalsosometimesprocessthemmorelikeobjectsthanlikefellow humanbeings o Harris ­ Regionsofthebrainassociatedwithfeelingssuchasdisgustweremorelikelytobeactivated,leadingtoadehumanizingviewoftheoutgroup member HowStereotypesSurviveandSelf-Perpetuate o Socialcategorizationhelpsgiverisetostereotypes,whichofferusquickandconvenientsummariesofsocialgroups o Theyoftencauseustooverlookthediversitywithincategoriesandtoformmistakenimpressionsofspecificindividuals IllusoryCorrelations o IllusoryCorrelation– anoverestimateoftheassociationbetweenvariablesthatareonlyslightlyornotatallcorrelated o Illusorycorrelationsresultfromtwo differentprocesses 1. Peopletend tooverestimatetheassociationbetweenvariablesthataredistinctive—variablesthatcaptureattentionsimplybecausetheyare novelordeviant 2. Peopletendtooverestimatetheassociationbetweenvariablesthatthey alreadyexpecttogotogether  Peopleoverestimatethejointoccurrenceofvariablestheyexpecttobeassociatedwitheachother,suchasstereotypedgroupsand stereotypicbehaviours PSYB10 6 Attributions o Peoplealsomaintaint
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