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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 –social cognition. • Social cognition=thinking about social objects • Social objects=object that has ability to engage in social cognition -_- • Automatic thinking o thought that is unconscious, unintentional, implicit, involuntary and effortless o Helps us understand new situation by relating them to our prior experiences. o Priming is a good example of automatic thinking because it occurs quickly, unintentionally, and unconsciously. o Automatic thinking dominates our thinking because we don’t have enough time to just analyze every problem and think critically about our choices before we make a decision o “things like associating, low level and resource in terms of thoughts” • Controlled thinking o Takes over and influences our behaviour when unusual events occur-sometimes for better or for worse. o Defined as thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful o People can usually turn on or turn off this type of thinking at will! o “the more resources you have to spend time on, the less you will have later” • A) Perception o Becoming aware of something through the senses  Pre-attentive processes: rapid processing of complex scene (Rapid = less than 250ms) • Complex scene: large, multi element display of information.  Gaze detection: notice someone who is looking at you. • B) Processing/Encoding Information o 1) Encoding : selecting information from the environment and storing it in the memory. Why? Because it has something to attention. o 2)Attention=selective perception.  Highlights the idea that we pay attention to what we really want to o 3) Schemas= Mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects(=set of expectations) if we didn’t have em, no à expectations! thus we’d have to think about everything we do(life would suck)  Shooter task 1=tool vs. gun, half white faces + half black faces. Participants told to pay attention only to 2ndpic + had to respond fast. • MUCH MORE that misidentified blacks as having gun.  Shooter task 2= game by whites. In game, half participants white+black, half gun+cell phone. • MUCH MORE blacks shot down even when innocent. o “Gun Bias”, it shows that:  “Given a label, we fill in the blanks with all kinds of schema- consistent info” in ERRONEOUS WAYS D:  Function of schemas? • Useful in: o 1) Filling in knowledge gaps, thus allowing continuity o 2) Organizing + Making sense of world, thus reducing ambiguity o 3) Memory guides  More likely to remember stuff consistent with schemas  Fill in memory gaps with schema consistent details(!) • E.g. if dog likes cat, probably gonna add to gap that dog hugged cat.  Leads schemas to become resistant to change o_o  Persistence of schemas? • Perseverance effect=people’s beliefs about themselves+world persist EVEN AFTER BEING DISCREDITED with evidence!!! • When people encounter new evidence or have old evidence discredited, they tend to NOT REVISE their schemas as much as we might expect.  Self fulfilling Prophecy • Our expectations for our social world shapes our social world. • It occurs when we have an expectation about what another person is like that influences how we act toward that person, which in turn, caused that person to behave consistently with our expectations. o E.g. attractiveness study • C) Storage & Knowledge retrieval o Prototype theory of categorization= Objects are classified based on similarity to a prototype.  Prototype: The most common idea for an object. Therefore the closer the object is to the prototype in your head the faster you are able to identify the object. o Semantic Network=We store closely related concepts are stored close to each other, and therefore they are much faster to retrieve.  Spreading activation: thinking about a certain concept will activate/make accessible/prime a related concept &&& inhibit unrelated concepts! Whoa! • D) Retrieval o Accessibility the extend to which schemas and concepts are at  the forefront of our minds and therefore are likely to be used when we are making judgments about the
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