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PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 8

social psych group processes - chapter 8

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CHAPTER 8 - GROUPPROCESSES  Social Groups (characteristics)  social norms to guide behavior (A group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members) - rules of conduct for members - formal rules: fraternities usually have written rules for behavior expected from their members - informal rules: more subtle, unwritten rules, can be time consuming and anxiety provoking - group members are expected to conform to these norms - members who devate from norms are punished or rejected  well-defined social roles (behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members) - set of expected behaviours - individual personality may be taken over by power of role - formal: designated by titles (e.g., teacher or student in class) - informal: less obvious - instrumental role: to help group achieve its tasks - expressive role: provide emotional support and maintain morale  Vary in level of group cohesiveness (The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar) - in mind of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking and in group favoritism - in mind of outsiders: cohesiveness increased stereotyping of group members - breaking group norms is difficult in groups that are cohesive - Group cohesiveness: extent to which forces exerted on a group push its members closer together - Factors: commitment to task, attraction to group members, group pride, number and intensity of interactions  Destructive Cults  centered around devotion to a person/idea/thing that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control  order of solar temple (OTS) - high status members of Quebec, Swiss and French society - recruitment through clubs, evaluated and initiated - beliefs: mixture of Christian and New age ideas, leaders, faithful group members would get eternal life - investigation began into organization finances and few members started to leave - death voyage - members were found dead, mass suicides and murders (47), shot down and burned, more suicides in Quebec  Defining characteristics: 1. Charismatic leader(s) 2. Leaders are self-appointed 3. The leader is the focus of veneration 4. Group culture tends toward totalitarianism 5. Group usually has 2 or more sets of ethics 6. Group presents itself as innovative and exclusive 7. Main goals: Recruitment & fundraising  Deindividuation  Person loses the sense of his or herself as an individual  Occurs in crowds, when physically anonymous, and group chanting or stomping - Effects of de-individuation: - Brandon Vedas, 21 year old man in chat room, took a fatal overdose of pills while others cheered him on  Deindiviudation: loss of a person's sense of individuality and reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior  Believe it is phenomenon that occurs only in presence of others  Arousal, anonymity, and reduced feelings of individual responsibility together contribute to deinidividuation  Accountability cues and attentional cues make deviant behaviours likely to occur - accountability: affect individual's cost reward calculations - when accountability is low, those who commit deviant acts are less likely to be caught and punished - being in large crowd or wearing mask = low accountability = more extreme and destructive behaviours - attentional cues: focus on person's attention away from self - individual attends less to internal standards, reacts more to immediate situation, less sensitive to long term consequences - placed in highly stimulated environment (loud music, colourful video games) were more uninhibited, extreme and aggressive in their actions  Being online (low in accountability and attentional cues) - community where people can post comments anon shows nasty effect of deinidividuation  Social identity model of deinidividuation effects (SIDE): model of group behaviour that explains deinidividuation effects as result of a shift from personal identity to social identity - As personal identity and internal controls are submerged, social identity emerges and conformity to group increases - if group defines itself ("us") in terms of prejudice and hatred against another group ("them") deinidividuation can ignite an explosion of violence - if group defines itself in terms of concern for welfare of others, deinidividuation can spark expansion of goodness  Social Facilitation and Social Loafing (see chart in lecture 6, slide 26)  Effects of groups on individual performance  Performance is based on 3 factors: individual evaluation, arousal, task complexity - Evaluation apprehension - concern about being judged/evaluated - socio-evaluate threat - extreme evaluation apprehension - body responds with stress hormone, cortisol - cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning  Social Facilitation: Tendency for performance to be improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others, and inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others  Social facilitation: process whereby presence of other enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks  The presence of others (side by side or with an audience out front) enhanced performance, at other times, performance declined  Social facilitation is universal  Social Loafing: Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated  Social loafing: group produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled  Individual output declines: - individual exert less effort when they acted collectively - individual simply demonstrate poor coordinatio
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