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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 LECTURE 02 THE SELF & SELF REGULATION Scientific methods: • Hypothetic-deductive Method 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory e.g. forming a theory on why we behavior aggressively 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis meaning transforming abstract concept into something more visible 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory • Variable types (a) Dependent variable “DV” The outcome, the variable you want to be able to predict (b) Independent variable “IV’ The predictor, the variable that you think will predict the DV, the independent must be experimentally manipulated in order to imply causation • Correlational design a) Key Features: 2 DVs We consider both variables in a correlational analysis to be “outcomes” to reflect the lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn. No experimental manipulation, Random sampling. Examples of correlational design: ice-cream sales are strongly correlated with increased number of drowning. This might not be true because it does depend on a number of factors which might be related to the increased number of drowning other than ice creams. If 2 things are correlated this means that they predict each other. E.g. assuming that someone is sick because they have stuffy nose, which might be right. However, stuffy nose didn’t cause the cold, but vice versa. b) Statistical Analysis for correlational design is correlation. If it’s significant, probability should be less than/equal 5 meaning they predict each other c) Proper Interpretation: Covariance and prediction but no causality Correlational design always support causal hypothesis e.g. cold always cause stuffy nose. • Quasi experimental designs: key features; 1. Defined IV (predictor usually categorical) and DV (outcome) 2. No manipulation because the IV is a known/natural group e.g. sex, ethnicity, nationality. 3. Comparison/control group 4. Stratified random sampling meaning you need enough info to get equal number of people into each known groups. E.g. recruiting large of number of people from a minority group to even out the differences in comparison with the majority groups. E.g. theory of mind research using 2 age groups: 3& 5 years old. Theory of mind is the ability to recognize that other people have distinct minds from us. This doesn’t fully develop until the ages between 3 and 5. We can’t say age caused the difference when discussing theory of mind using quasi experiment because we can only understand the difference. However, we have to observe the cognitive and physiology areas responsible for such differences. Children can’t lie until they develop theory of mind. 5. Statistical analysis for quasi is a t-test. Proper interpretation is covariance and prediction, but discuss the difference, no causality. • Experimental designs involve manipulating an IV, random sampling/ assignment to condition, comparison/control group. People taking ecstasy are worse at detecting anger in people’s face and also, don’t feel empathy/ warm feeling with other aka intimacy. Mdma doesn’t increase systematic empathy but can decrease accuracy detecting a particular emotion from distancing ourselves from others. a) Statistical analysis includes t-test, ANOVA and Bayesian methods. b) Proper interpretation means that IV causes DV THE SELF: an individual conscious of one’s identity aka who you are; feeling, thoughts, observations. This can be known by how we interact with others, how respond to situations, hearing our thoughts. SELF AWARENESS: awareness of self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment evolutionary. Human possess the most complex self-awareness. This means been different from others/world, tested with the mark test aka rouge test. According to the test, someone with self-awareness is able to notice a mark on their face. Also, most humans pass the test at age 1 and half. LEVELS OF SELF: a) minimal self: conscious experience of self as distinct from the environment. This occurs through double stimulation meaning than you’re able to recognize everything that is you (body parts) e.g. touching your elbow and able to feel that it’s part of you. B) Objectified self: cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own/other’s attention. The aspect of being a social object, thinking about both people/self. C) Symbolic self aka narrative self: the ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through languages. Only human can do this because human understand human language. INHERENTLY SOCIAL: “My thought of self is … filled up with my thought of others … and my thoughts of others … [are] mainly filled up with myself.” James Mark Baldwin. THE SELF CONCEPT: the idea of who you are, everything you know about yourself, including qualities, identities, roles etc. SELF-SCHEMA: cognitive representation of self-concept. The concepts/words in your semantic network that is associated with your sense of self. Guides processing of self-related information. This is ability to recognize things in your environment that are related to yourself. Measuring of self-concept is done through the use of the twenty statement test e.g. I am…… this helps to identify individual traits/personality descriptors e.gs I am studious/messy and social roles e.g. I am a parent/best friend/doctor. THE SELF-COMPLEXITY: the depth and complexity of your self-concept. Operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self-concept. E.g. giving different traits on the test for every question is viewed as complex. Measuring the self-schema by using the reaction time measuring called implicit personality test which reveals that people respond quickly to personality traits that are closely related to them and not quickly to traits that are not related to them. E.g. Markus (1977) had 101 college students complete a personality characteristics test and after which they had to take an implicit test. Key was people’s response to words related to autonomy and independence (aschemas are between dependent and independent). People who identified themselves as been autonomous took a shorter reaction time, while aschematics are in the middle. People who identified as themselves as autonomous took a longer reaction time to respond to “not me”. GLOBAL VS CONTEXTUALIZED SELF: twenty statement test measures the global self- concept aka general self-concept e.g. I am…… in contrast, contextualized self-reveals 2 different aspects/state of an individual e.g. I am….when……,this helps buffer negative feelings after failure e.g. feeling more positive than people who has just complete the global self-test. contextualized self-test is more true to reality. WORKING SELF-CONCEPT: derived from working memory. Subset of self-concept that’s presently/ easily accessible. They are recently primed aspects of self, depending on the situation e.g. feeling like a student when in class& a love partner on a date, contextual distinctive aspects and are central aspects of self ( always with you no matters the situation). SELF-CONCEPT CENTRAILITY: this is the aspects of self-concepts that are more personally important to you than others. They are chronically accessible in the semantic network. Measuring of self-concept centrality uses the boosie task this requires people to fill out traits that describe them in a circle and those central to them will be at the origin of the circle. Consequences of self-concept centrality: • Self- evaluation maintenance aka positive evaluation: if someone close to you performs better than you in a particular domain; you will be threatened if the domain is central to you or you will be proud if the domain isn’t central to you. a) If domain is central; you either distance yourself from r/ship or from the domain task e.g. distancing yourself from a friend that outperformed you on the MCAT/ using a defense mechanism to hide the pain b) If domain not central; vicarious self-boost or magnitude of self-esteem boost proportional to closeness of r/ship e.g. feeling proud of your friend depending on how close you are to him/her • Self-handicapping: strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure/embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance e.g. shepperd& arkin (1989): 100 students take a test and result predicts future success ( diagnostic), other test don’t predict future success (invalid). Results showed that participants in the invalid condition chose a tape that will enhance their performances and participants in the diagnostic chose hurt their performance giving them the opportunity to discount the outcome. • Self –verification: the need to seek confirmation of one’s self-concept which is motivated by a desire to be understood. This holds true even if self-concept is negative, but only for central traits e.g. giesler, josephs& swann (1996) conducted a study in which they proposed that depression involves the negative view of self, world, and future, and the negative views are chronically
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