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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Book Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Social Psychology: Chapter 10: Why Do People Help? Prosocial Behavior: Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person Altruism: the desire to help another person, even if it involves a cost to the helper; it does not include helping somebody for personal gain, only helping for the desire to benefit someone else Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes The evolution theory states that any gene that enhances the probability of survival and the production of offspring will be passed on from generation to generation, whereas those genes that reduces the chances of survival will not be passed on This theory does not account for altruistic behaviour, as it often involves behaviours that risk the individuals well being Kin Selection: the idea that behaviour that helps a genetic relative is favoured by natural selection Via kin selection, the chances of your genes being passed to the next generation is enhanced not only by your children, but the children of your relatives According to the evolutionary theory, those who follow kin selection are more likely to survive than those who do not, so over the millennia, it has been ingrained in human behaviour Research does not fully support this; emotional closeness, rather than genetic relatedness, is a better predictor of altruism Norm of Reciprocity: The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future In this theory, evolutionary psychologists claim that those who were most likely to survive were those who developed and understood with their neighbours that they will provide help with the expectation that help will be given in times of need In the social norm theory, it is not directly altruism that is learned per se, but rather it is in a person`s genetic makeup to quickly and effectively learn social norms, and helping one another is a social norm in all societies In sum, evolutionary psychologists believe that people help each other because of three factors: www.notesolution.com
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