Textbook Notes (363,260)
Canada (158,278)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12: Prejudice (corresponding to lecture 10)

17 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 12: Prejudice Prejudice: The Social Ubiquitous Social Phenomenon - its a two way street: flows from minority to majority groups and majority groups to minority groups anyone can be a target of stereotyping and prejudice - stereotypes most likely held for social groups (e.g., racial and ethnic groups rather than groups such as jury members or cast of a play) - most superordinate social groups = nationality - racial and ethnic background is major focal point for prejudiced attitudes canada seen as embracing multiculturalism ask individual canadians of different racial backgrounds and theyll be prejudiced towards other racial backgrounds Try iIt pg 375 - other aspects leave you vulnerable to prejudice: gender sexual preference religion age - Ms. stereotype study at UofT women rated more negatively when preferred title Ms. than mrs or miss even 30 yrs later, considered less warm and nurturant than those using title Miss or Mrs. - profession or hobbies lead to stereotyping dumb jock, computer nerd Kenneth Dion (1985): found students at UofT show greater prejudice toward ppl w/ low status occupations than ppl of different race or nationality high status still get prejudice = lawyer jokes widespread - prejudice is dangerous lead to extreme hatred (e.g., murder or genocide) Clark and Clark (1947): african american children as young as 3 felt that it wasnt good to be black when given choice between african american and white doll = chose white doll in Canada, replace african american with aboriginal canadian aboriginal children chose white play mate over their own more positive attributions to white than aboriginals - has reduced in past five or six decades african american gradually more content w/ black dolls than in 1947 ppl less prejudiced toward some stigmitized groups (e.g., gays and lesbians) many people are still prejudiced dont openly admit it - all vulnerable to societal, situation, and psychological factors that lead for us to favour our own group and denigrate members of others Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Defined - made up of three components: 1. affective or emotional 2. cognitive 3. behavioural Prejudice: The Affective Component - prejudice seen as either negative or positive, social psychologists primarily view it as mostly negative attitudes about others prejudice: hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of ppl, based solely on their membership in that group Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component - we tend to categorize according to what we regard as normative w/in a culture - stereotyping goes beyond simple categorization stereotype: generalization about a group of ppl in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members once formed, resistant to change on basis of new info. - Doesnt necessarily lead to negative or harmful behavior Merely a way to simplify how we look at the world Given our limited info-processing capacity, reasonable for us to take short cuts and adopt certain heuristics to understand other ppl If it blinds us to individual differences w/in class of ppl then its maladaptive and unfair = discrimination Discrimination: The Behavioural Component - Action component = discrimination: unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group - May not always be obvious but may operate in more subtle ways What Causes Prejudice? The Way We Think: Social Cognition - Dark side of social cognition Rely on inaccurate heuristics, depend on what are often faulty memory processes Social Categorization: Us versus Them - Group ppl according to characteristics - When encounter person w/ certain characteristics, we rely on perceptions of what ppl w/ similar characteristics have been like in the past to help determine how to react to this person - Categorization is both useful and necessary However, the process has profound implications because classifying ppl into groups is rarely a neutral one In-Group Bias - The tendency to evaluate in-group members more positively than out- group members - Out-groups are often seen as possessing negative traits and disliked - Even in most minimal conditions E.g., even complete strangers randomly put into a group in an experiment will like ppl in their group because of shared characteristics / toss of a coin Why Do We Show the In-Group Bias? 1. Group gives us social identity 2. Having social identity contributes to feelings of self-esteem Social Identity Benefits - If provides us w/ social identity, individuals who strongly identify would be more likely to favour their group and discriminate against an out- group than individuals who only weakly identify w/ their group - The more strongly one identifies w/ their group, the more likely one is to discriminate against an out-group - Findings suggest that if persons sense of identity is threatened, theyll be especially likely to discriminate against out-group Self-Esteem Benefits - Evidence shows that discriminating against others improves our self esteem Only when it involves our social identity - Threat to our self-esteem = denigrate out-group = restoring feelings of self-worth - If we are feeling defensive and threatened = more likely to engage in discrimination vs. if self-esteem is in good shape (self esteem not threatened) Out-Group Homogeneity - Perception that those in the out-group are more similar (homogenous) to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are to each other - Figure 12.1, pg383 Implications of Social Categorization for Reducing Prejudice - Promoting a common identity or by emphasizing the superordinate groups to which both in-group and out-group members belong Research suggests that speaking the same language can help blur distinction between us and them Study w/ Francophone and Anglophone students known each others language Downside: Anglophones still retained their own identity even if they identified w/ Francophones; in contrast = francophones (minority group), increased identification w/ Anglophones was associated w/ decrease in their own group Seems that the only way for minority position to minimize distinction between us and them is to become one of them Research in support of making salient superordinate group to which members of both groups belong Wohl and Branscombe (2005):asked members of Jewish Students association if Germans should be forgiven for holocaust Holocaust described in event which germans behaved aggressive toward jews and event which humans behaved aggressively toward other humans participants in human identity condition more willing to forgive (superordinate group to which germans and jews both belong = humans) Ppl are less likely to automatically evaluate based on their race if other group memberships are made more salient or important Ppl in a mixed-race team showed less automatic racial bias (i.e., were not as likely to associate words black and bad in an implicit association test) than those who were told to memorize names of team members - Provide w/ an alternative route to self-esteem, so they wont have to step on others to be on top Self-affirmation: if ppl were affirmed in some way, they would be less likely to boost their self=esteem by derogating out-group members E.g., telling them how great they are Giving ppl another domain in which to give self-esteem a boost rather than stepping all over others What We Believe: Stereotypes
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.