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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- stereotyping and prejudice

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 12: Stereotyping and Prejudice (Lecture 19) Prejudice: Stereotyping, and Discrimination Defined Prejudice is an attitude Attitudes are made up of 3 components: o an effective or emotional component representing the type of emotion linked w/ the attitude (e.g. anger, warmth) o cognitive component involving the beliefs or thoughts (cognition) that make up the attitude o behavioral component relating to ones actions- ppl dont simply hold attitudes; they usually act on them as well Prejudice: The Affective Component prejudice refers to the general attitude structure and its affective (emotional) component can involve either positive or negative affect prejudice: hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of ppl, based solely on their membership in that group e.g. when we say that an individual is prejudiced against aboriginal ppl, we mean that he/ she feels hostility or disliking toward aboriginal ppls as a whole Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component stereotype: generalization about a group of ppl in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members once formed, stereotypes are resistant to change on the basis of new information stereotyping doesnt necessarily lead to negative or harmful behaviors stereotyping is merely a way to simplify how we look at the work Allport, the law of least effort o World is just too complicated for us to have a highly differentiated attitude about everything Instead, we max. our cognitive time and energy by developing elegant, accurate attitudes about some topics, while relying on simple, sketchy beliefs for others If a stereotype blinds us to individual differences w/in a class of ppl, its maladaptive and unfair, and can lead to discrimination Discrimination: The Behavioral Component Discrimination: unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply b/c of his/ her membership in that group 1 www.notesolution.com Chapter 12: Stereotyping and Prejudice (Lecture 19) E.g. if a math teacher have the stereotype belief that girls are hopeless at math, teacher might spend less time in the classroom coaching a girl than a boy What causes prejudice? The Way We Think: Social Cognition Inevitable byproduct of the way we process and organize info.- its the dark side of human social cognition Our tendency to categorize and group info. together, to form schemas and to use these to interpret new or unusual info., to rely on potential inaccurate heuristics (shortcuts in mental reasoning), and to depend on what are often faulty memory processes Social Categorization: Us versus Them 1 step in prejudice is the creation of groups o Putting some ppl into one group based on certain characteristics and others into another group based on their diff. characteristics When we encounter a person w/ certain characteristics (e.g. old, male), we rely on our perceptions of what ppl w/ similar characteristics have been like in the past to help us determine how to react to this person Social categorization is both useful and necessary but has profound implications b/c the process of classifying ppl into groups is rarely a neutral one In- Group Bias In group bias: tendency to evaluate in group members more positively than out group members Why Do We Show the In- Group Bias? Belonging to a group gives us a social identity Having a social identity contributes to feelings of self- esteem Social Identity Benefits Individuals who strongly identify w/ a group would be more likely to favor their group and discriminate against an out group The more strongly one identifies w/ ones own group, the more likely one is to discriminate against an out group If a persons sense of social identity is threatened, he/ she might be especially likely to discriminate Self- Esteem Benefits Dividing the world into us and Them gives us a sense of social identity o Gives ppl a self- esteem boost if they believe that their group is superior and that other groups are inferior 2 www.notesolution.comChapter 12: Stereotyping and Prejudice (Lecture 19) Discriminating against others improves our self- esteem, but only when our social identity is involved If we are feeling defensive and threatened, we are more likely to engage in discrimination than if our self- esteem is in good shape Out Group Homogeneity Out group homogeneity: perception that those in the out- group are more similar (homogenous) to each other than they really are, and more similar than the members of the in group are to each other If you know sth about one out group member, it feels like you know sth about all of them Implications of Social Categorization for Reducing Prejudice Ways to min. boost self esteem by discrimination against them o Change ppls perceptions of us and Them- either by promoting a common identity or by emphasizing the super ordinate groups to which both in group and out group members belong o Provide ppl w/ an alternative route to self- esteem, so they wont have to step on others to be on top Prejudice is diminished when groups share a common identity Prejudice an
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