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Chapter 4

PSYB10 Chapter 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Non verbal communication the way in which people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words o Our ability to read nonverbal cues is not limited to members of our speciesDogs are adept to reading both dog and human non verbalsThey even outperform chimpanzees when it comes to understanding human non verbal cues o We automatically mimic other peoples facial expressionsMimicry effects are especially pronounced when we like the other person or consider himher to be a member of our groupOur tendency to mimic may reflect empathy the capacity to feel what the other person is feelingMirror neurons a special kind of neuron found in humans and primates that responds when we perform an action and when we see someone else perform that actionOne way we are able to interact with other emotionally is through the activation of mirror neurons o Help people express their emotions attitudes and personality o Facial expressions are one of the most common forms of non verbal behaviourPrimary emotions conveyed by the face are universalHuman beings everywhere canEncode to express or emit nonverbal behaviourDecode to interpret the meaning of the non verbal behaviour other people expressFor anger happiness surprise fear disgust and sadness are universalOther universal expressions added as universal are contempt pride embarrassment anxiety shame and guiltOne issue for the universality of expressions concerns the level of accuracy that participants must achieve in order to conclude that a given facial expression is being perceived the same way across cultures o There is even less universality when participants are asked to name the emotion shown in the face rather than select the terms from a list o Happiness is the only truly universal expressionAnother issue is that universality suggests that basic facial expressions of emotion should be easily identified regardless of the context in which they are perceived o The judgment of a given facial expression depends on what other faces were presented
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