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Appendix-Stress and Human Health.doc

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Appendix Stress and Human Health There is more to health than germs and disease-we also need to consider the amount of stress in our lives ad how we deal with that stress. When people undergo a major upheaval in their lives, such as losing a spouse, declaring bankruptcy, or being forced to resettles in a new culture, their chance of dying increases. Stress - The negative feelings and beliefs that occur whenever people feel unable to cope with demands from their environment. - Your body’s physiological response to threatening events. - Is the degree to which people have to change and readjust their lives in response to an external event. Ex. Graduation from university is a happy occasion, but it can be stressful because of the major changes it sets in motion in one’s life. - Psychological or physiological stress Perceived Control - The belief that we can influence our environment in way that determines whether we experience positive or negative outcomes. - Ex patients who had undergone a coronary angioplasty because of diseased arteries. The people who had a high sense of control over their futures were less likely to experience subsequent heart problems than those with a low sense of control. Thus, knowing that we can control our lives gives us more of a chance to improve our health. -Believing we can control our lives is one thing; believing that we can actually execute the specific behaviours that will get us what we want is another. Self Efficacy - Albert Bandura - The belief in one’s ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes. - Ex if Sam believes that he can perform the behaviours that will enable him to quit smoking-throwing away his cigarettes. Avoiding situations in which he is most tempted to smoke, distracting himself when he craves cigarette-then chances are he will succeed. If he has low self-efficacy in this domain, believing that he can’t perform the behaviour necessary to quit, then he is likely to fail. - Therefore having high efficacy is an important determinant of whether we succeed. Explaining Negative Events Learned Helplessness - The state of pessimism that results from explaining a negative event as stemming from stable, internal, and global factors. Ex. You did poorly on a test so you say to yourself “Wow, I guess I can’t really cut it, I was worried that I wasn’t smart enough t o make it in university, and boy was I ever right”. Stable Attribution - The belief that the cause of an event is a result of factors that will not change over time (Ex. Our intelligence), as opposed to unstable factors that will change over time (ex. The amount of effort we put into a task). - Explaining this negative event as stemming from an internal cause-that is, making an internal attribution-means we believe that something about us caused the event (ex. Our own ability or e
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