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PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 2: methodology - does television violence produce violent behaviour? Virgine Larviere proposed that violence on television plas a role in brutal , deadly assaults of innocent people - Television violence: the effects on children of different ages (Wendy Josephson) found that televison violence does not increase aggression, at leats among children that are predisposed towards aggression. . allthough the group at risk might be a minority of viewers, they are likely to be the majority of aggressors. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AN EMPIRICAL SCIENCE - hindsight bias: the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted the outcome after knowing that it had occurred. - When we study human behaviour the results seem predictable - A study found that the tendency to think that we knew it all along is already apparent among three year olds and elderly vancouver residents o ROESE and OLSON (1996)they asked students at the university of Western Ontario to read a story based on world war I events, about a young British soldier who devised a plan to save a small village that was about to be invaded. (some people were told that the soldier was able to save his community and many felt that that outcome was predicable) In another condition, particpants were told that the soldiers plan was rejected and the village was destroyed. And the participants said that they thought it was obvious that the village would be destroyed o So the trick is to predict what will happen before you read the story. o Three types of sociological methods are: observational method, correlational method and experimental method Formulatig Hypotheses and Theories - theory: an organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena - hypothesis: a testable statement or idea about the relationshp between two or more variables. - Social psychologists are continuosly engaging in a process of theory refinement, they develop a theory , test specific hypothesis, derived from that theory and based on the resullts revise and formulate new hypotheses. - KITTY GENOVESE: Genovese was attacked while walking to her care and brtally murdered in an alley of an apartment complex. The attack lasted 45 minutes . 38 of the apartment residents admitted later that they had rushed to their windows after hearing her sceams but none of the bystanders helped her because they assumed that someone else already called the police - BIBB Lante and John Darley believe that the more people that witness an emergency the less likely that any given individual will intervene. The neighbours might have assumed that someone else would have called the police in a phenomenon called diffusion of responsibility. - Perhaps they would have helped if they were the only ones who were witneessing the murder. - In science the researcher must collect data to test his or her hypothesis. This requires the precise spefication on how the variables that will be examined are measured and manipulated known as operational definition. THE OBSERVATIONAL METHOD - observational method: the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of behaviour - ethnography: the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions - the goal is to understand the richness and complexity of the group by observing it in action. o In the 1950s people of the midwest US predicted that the world would come to an end in violent catalysm on a specific date. They also thought that they would be rescued by someone in a spaceship that would land in the leaders backyard. o Leon Festinger and his collleages wanted to study how the group would react when they found out that their beliefs were false, so they blended in with the crowd , convincing them that they believed the same thigns as well. o The clan members still believed that the spaceship would come and rescue them, and they became more commited to the belief system they renewed their efforts to convert others. -Debra Pepler and Wendy Craig have developed a thoery a unobstrusive method for observing bullying behaviour in school settings - children wear wrist pouches containing small microphones ,while a hidden video camera films their interactions. - the waist-pouch microphone technology also adresses the age old problem in observational research- people change their behaviour when they are being observed -these methods encourage reasearchers to see naturally occuring behaviours since ther will be more of a tendency for children to changetheir behaviorus if adults are around. - reasearchers must define behaviours of interest, in this study reasearchers were looking at three behaviours (bullying only occurs if there is a power imbalance, if there is an intent to harm on th part of the person doing the bullying, and if the victim shows distress) - power imbalance: bigger chidren are at an advantage, and tend to be more powerful than smaller children. USING OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH TO DEVELOP ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS - children are taught how to respond when they are victims of bullying and teachers are trained to be viligant when they see bullying occur. - Pepler and colleagues found that a deacrease in bullying and increase in is most likely to be seen among children who who bully moderately often - Children who bully at a high rate dont seem to be affected. The affects of the program can be seen on a long term scale and not right away. - Interjudge reliability: the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data, by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective impressions of the one individual - Another f
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