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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 – Lecture 1 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – Social Psychology - Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings.” - Gordon Allport, 1985 - Social psychology has a focus on thought, behaviour, and feeling - „…presence of other human beings‟  „presence of others‟ – Page-Gould altered definition so that „others‟ opens definition to broader view of social processings that includes animals - Others do not need to be directly in front of you to influence you Slide 6 – “ABCs of Social Psychology” - Any social phenomenon can be focused on through these ABCs - Affect o Emotions, feelings and moods - Behaviour o Verbal and nonverbal action, observable things o Behaviour is the only thing that others know about us because they are unable to see inside your mind - Cognition o Thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory Slide 9 – Bartering Task - VIDEO: human exchanger teaches monkey a task o Inequity – eventually subject stops participating because they notice that the task is not fair Slide 62 – Theoretical History - Late 1800s o Subfield of Philosophy o William James  Philosopher of mind  Started to incorporate more scientific approaches - Wundt: “Experimental Psychology” o Wundt was the first person to establish an experimental psychology lab Slide 63 – William James Quote - “The community stagnates without the impulse of the individual. The impulse dies away without the sympathy of the community.” o Need the individual in the group, need the group to keep going o Social isolation and separation can be extremely damaging Slide 64 – Triplett (1898) - Conducted first social psychology experiment ever - Triplett noticed that cyclists had faster biking times when people were watching - Social Facilitation o Performance affected by presence of others  Sometimes presence improves performance but sometimes it makes it worse (and there are systematic reasons for why that is) Slide 65 – Kurt Lewin - “Father of Social Psychology” o Research Interests  Perception and cognition  “Dyadic Interactionism” Slide 66 – World War II - Government interest in social psychology - The field of social psychology was not formalized until the government became interested in persuasion and propaganda during war (& how to get people on our side & how to buy war bonds) o Persuasion and propaganda o Key social psychologists funded by government to study effective War Bond Ads (which depict fear, but provide a solution – i.e. buy war bonds) Slide 70 – World War II - Post-war: o How did Nazi Germany happen? o Milgram‟s “Obedience to Authority”  Milgram was interested in – „do you have to be a bad person to do bad things‟ Slide 71 – Cultural Events - Murder of Kitty Gthovese o March 13 , 1964 o At least 39 witnesses  No one intervened or even called the police because they thought someone else had called since they saw other people watching o Darley and Latane‟s “Bystander Apathy” research - Jonestown Mass Suicith – Jim Jones cult o November 18 , 1978 o 907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents) Slide 74 – Social Psychological Toolkit - Self-report/surveys o Obtained by: pencil-and-paper, computer survey, interview - Reaction time tasks o Obtained by: computers, stop watches, video/audio - Priming o Presented: subliminally, explicit priming - Nonverbal/verbal behaviour o Obtained by: video cameras, audio recording, close observation - Neuroscience o Obtained by: fMRI, brain-damaged patients, EEG - Psychophysiology o Obtained by: spot and band electrodes, temperature sensors, plethysmographs, saliva Slide 81 – Research and Statistical Methods - Scientific Method - Variable types - Empirical design: o Correlational o Quasi-experimental o Experimental Slide 82 – Scientific Method - Hypothethico-Deductive Method o 1. Examine past knowledge/research o 2. Form a theory o 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis o 4. Test hypothesis o 5. Revise theory Slide 83 – Variable Types - Dependent Variable – DV o Outcome - Independent Variable – IV o Predictor o Only implies causation when it is manipulated Slide 84 – Correlational Designs - Key Features: o 2 DVs o No experimental manipulation o Random sampling - Statistical analysis o Correlation, regression, or Bayesian - Proper Interpretation o Covariance and prediction o No causality Slide 87 – Quasi-experimental Designs - Key features: o A defined “predictor” and “outcome” o IV is not manipulated  “Known groups” IV (e.g. sex, ethnicity, nationality) o Stratified random sampling o Comparison/control group - Theory of Mind o 2 age groups (3 & 5) - Statistical analysis o Correlation, regression, ANOVA, or Bayesian - Proper Interpretation o Covariance and Prediction o Discuss differences, but no causality Slide 90 – Experimental Designs - Key features o Manipulated IV(s) o Random assignment to condition o Comparison/control group - Statistical Analysis o Regression, ANOVA, and Bayesian - Proper Interpretation o IV causes DV Slide 93 – Social Cognition - Foundation of social psychology - Thinking about social objects Slide 95 – Social Object - A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition - Has to exist in the tangible world - Has to be able to look on others and think about them; have ability to think about others Slide 101 – Perception - Becoming aware of something through the senses - Essentially a process of thought Slide 102 – Pre-attentive Processes - Exist because they reflect something that is more fundamental for survival - Processes through which we attend to certain elements in a very complex stimuli scene more quickly than othe
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