Chapter 3: Social Cognition: How we Think About the Social World.
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- Social cognition: how people thicken about themselves and the social world; more
specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make
judgements and decisions.
PART I: On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking
- Automatic thinking: thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effort-
People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas
- Schemas: mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social
world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think
about and remember.
- Korsakov’s syndrome: people have difficulty making schemas.
- Accessibility: the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s
minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgements about the social
- Schemas can be accessible for 3 reasons. 1. Chronically assessable due to past expe-
rience 2.related to current goal 3. Recent experiences.
- Priming: the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a
schema, trait, or concept.
- Perseverance effect: the finding that people’s beliefs about themselves and the social
world persist eve after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited.
- Self-fullfilling prophecy: the case whereby people (a) have an expectation about what
another person is like, which (b) influences how they act toward that person