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Chapter 1

PSYB20H3 Chapter 1: chapter 1 notes devlopment psych

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Development Psychology- Chapter 1 ( Child development themes, theories and methods • Child development: a field of study that seeks to account for the gradual evolution of the childs cognitive , social and other capacities first by describing changes s in the childs observed behaviors and then by uncovering the process and strategies that underlie these changes • Development psychologist are interested in what things change as children get older, and how these changes come about • Charles Darwin: conducted a research on infants early sensory and perceptual capacities and childrens emotions Themes of Development: • Scientist have studied childrens development they have examined and debated three key issues of themes pertaining to psychological l growth Origins of behavior: biological vs. environmental influences: • Most theories say that biological and environmental factors influence human development • Arnold Gesell’s psychologist believed that the course of development is largely identified by the biological factors • During his research Arnold Gesell focused on maturation or the natural unfolding of development over the course of growth • John B Watson : he focused strictly on the environment, and assumed that biological factors placed no restrictions on the ways that the environment can shape the course of a childs development, he said that properly organizing the environment could produce a genius or a criminal • Modern developmentalist explore how biological, environmental factors, nature, nurture interact to produce development variations in different children Pattern of development change: continuity versus discontinuity • A question that development psychologist worry about is how to describe the pattern of development change two basic patterns are debated • Some psychologist view development as a continous process where each new event builds on ealier experiences, therefore development is a smooth and gradual accumulations of abilities • Development add and build to ealier abilities in a cumulative or quantitative way without any abrupt shifts from one change to the next • Maturation: a genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time Forces that affect development change: individual characteristics versus contextual and cultural influence: • Child development occurs in differ settings, do children behave similar across a broad range of situations or do the contexts in which children live affect how children behave • Development psychologist: they focus differently on individual characteristics versus situational or contextual influences, many resolve the controversy by adopting an interactions viewpoint, stressing the role of single and contextual factors • A way individual characsterics have been studied is by examining how differ the children respond when they are confronted with situational challenges or risks to healthy development • Some risk are biological and others are psychological ex: serious illness or living with a psychotic parent • Other risks are environmental like family income, childs experience at school . martial status • Many times kids respond to risk in differ way one of them is permanent development disruptions, sleeper effects they seem to cope well but later development issues in development, some exhibit resilience and are able to deal with the challenge • Examine child development across cultures provides info about variation in the range of human potential and expression that may emerge in differ circumstances of growth Theoretical perspectives on development: • It is impt that a theory describes psychological and development change over time • Theories serve two main functions which are impt towards scientic understanding and to study of development psychology • Theories help organize and integrate existing info into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop • Second is that they generate testable hypothesis or predictions about childrens behavior • A good scientific theory allows one to make sense of a great number of observation mainly based on the fewest # of premises and can then be used to formulate settings for the collection of new observations • The main theories of child development 1) structural organisimic, 2) learning, 3) dynamic systems, 4) contextual and ethological and evolutionary views Structural organismic perspective • Frued and piaget adopted this idea called structuralism, Freud was interested in emotions and personality where piaget was interested in thinking • Freud and piaget both used what we know today as structural organismic perspective in their theories • Both shared the view that organism goes through an organized or structured series of stages . discontinuous changes over the course of development • Structural organisimic perspective: theoretical approached that describe psychological structures and process that undergo qualitative or stage like changes over the course of development • Psycho dynamic theory was introduced by Sigmund freud, and this theory talks about how the experiences of early childhood shape the development of adult personality • Frued says how the developing personality is made of three pares id, ego and superego • Psychodynamic theory: development which proceeds in discrete stages is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of three components, id, ego and superego • Id: persons instinctual drives the first component of the personality to evolve the id operates on the basis of the pleasure principle • Ego: rational controlling component of the personality which tries to satisfy needs through appropriate socially acceptable behaviors • Superego: is the repository of the Childs internalization of parental or societal values, morals and roles. • Freud said how personality development changes in organization and interaction of id, ego and superego has 5 stages • Oral stage: young infant is preoccupied with pleasurable activities such as eating, sucking and biting nd rd • 2 to 3 year kid enters anal stage: learns to postone the personal gradification such as pleasure of expelling feces as he is trained to used the toilet • Phallic stage: curiosity about sexual anatomy and sexuality appears frued said this stage was critical to info about gender identity • Latency stage: from 6 years of age to puberty sexual drives are temporarily subemerged and children avoid relationships with peers of the other gender • Gentil stage: sexual desires emerge and are directed toward peers • Psychological theory: eriksons theory of development that sees children developing through a series of stages largely through accomplishing task that involve them in interaction with their social environment • Piagetian theory: introduced a structural organismic theory so he can describe intellectual development • Piagetian theory: uses two basic principles of biology and biological change: organization and adatption. • For piaget the principle of organization reflects the view that human intellectual development is a biologically organized process • Also that childs understanding of the world changes in an organized way over the course of development • Piaget said kids go through four stages of cognitive development and how infants rely on their sensory and motor abilities to learn about the world • Preschool kids rely on mental structures and symbols like language • Adolescence: children can reason and abstract ideas • School: rely on logic • Piaget said congnitive development is where the kid shifts from a focus on he self immediate sensory experiences and simple problems to a more complex milti faceted and abstract understanding of the world • Behaviorism: focuses on the learning of behaviors. Emphasizes the role of experience and it’s a gradual continuous view • Behaviorism: holds that theories of behavior must be based on direct observations of actual behavior and not on speculations about such unobservable things as human motives • Classical conditioning : learning in which individuals learn to respond to unfamiliar stimuli in the same way they are accustomed to respond to familiar stimuli if the two stimuli are repeatedly presented together example: Watson conditioned a 11 month old infant to fear furry animals by showing baby who was easily frigthedn by noises a white eat and over and over making noise • Operant conditioning learning in which learning depends on the consequncews of behavuour rewards increase the likelihood that a behavior will recur wherears punishment decreases that likelihood • Cognitive social learning theory: according to this theory kids don’t only learn through classical and operant conditioning but also buy observing and imitating others • Albert Bandura did and study and it showed that kids exposed to the aggressive behavior of another person would imitate that behavior • Kids don’t imitate blindly but they select certain behavior they want to imitate • Information processing approaches: theories of development that focus
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