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Chapter 6

Developmental Psychology - Chapter 6 .doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Diana Valencia

Developmental Psychology Chapter 6: Emotional Developmental andAttachment Early Emotional Development  emotions imp aspects... a) subj reactions to the envir b) usually experienced cogn as either pleasant or unpleasant c) generally accompanied by some forms of physio arousal d) often communicated to others by some beh or action WhyAre Emotions Important?  Emo have a wide variety of functions in lives of children  emos are a means of letting others how how we feel  our success in communicating our emos and in learning to interpret other ppls emos is linked with our social success  being able to express and interpret emos is as imp as being able to solve a cog prob  Daniel Goleman: being able to navigate successfully in the world on ur own and other ppls emos is a critical ingredient of social and occupational success  emos are linked to children's mental and phys health  children who are excessively sad and despondent may develop poor concentration and withdrawal from social interactions, and their self worth may deteriorate  phys health suffers when emo development goes wrong - ex children reared in envir where they are emo and socially deprived = later prob with management of stress and anxiety – shown in heightened levels of cortisol -> lead to phys health prob Primary and Secondary Emotions  primary emos – fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest – emerge early in life and dont require introspection or self reflection  secondary / self conscious emos – pride, shame, guilt, jealousy and embarrassment – emerge later in develop and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other individs reactions to our actions Perspectives on Emotional Developmental  child's emo develop is influenced by many factors: her genetic inheritance, conditions of the envir into which she is born, her interactions with fam members and with peers = all play in emo makeup  all views overlap to some degree The Genetic-Maturational Perspective  emos are best seen as products of bio factors  individ diff in temperament play a central role in how intensely children react to emotionally arousing situ and in how well they are able to regulate their reactions  right and left brain hemispheres control joy and fear expressions  twin studies with premature infants support the bio underpinnings for develop of emos - identical twins = greater similarity than fraternal twins in earliest times of their first smiles and mount of smiling they engage in  smiling studies in premature infants support the role of genetic maturational factors in the onset of smiling  the normal conceptual age (age since conception) of a newborn is 40 weeks and most full term babies begin to smile 6 weeks after birth or at a conceptual age of 46 weeks  premature infants who are born at 34 weeks often do not smile until 12 weeks after birth , which is also 46 weeks after conception  certain amount of phys maturation and social stimulation must occur before baby is ready to start smiling - genetic and envir interplay accounts for the timing and form of the beh  genetic maturational basis for neg emos is supported by twin and cross cultural studies - identical twins more similar than frat in their fear reactions to strangers and in general degree of inhibitedness The Learning Perspective  useful in explaining individ diff in emo expressions  diff emo expressions have diff onsets, freq, and intensities in diff children  freq children smile and laugh vary with nature of envir in which they are raised  rents can help their children learn to manage and understand their emos by rewarding certain emo display or they can interfere by being punitive and by dismissing their children;s em expressions and experiences  when adults, esp familiar caregivers, respond to baby's smile with positive stimulation, the child's rate of smiling increases  learning experiences can elicit and reinforce fear responses  children may become classically conditioned to fear the doctor who gave him a shot  children may learn other fears through operant conditioning when one of their beh is followed by a punishing consequence  can learn fear by observing others Functionalist Perspectives  contemp approach to emo develop  this theory emos help us achieve our goals and adapt to our envir and it emphasizes the role of emo in establishing and maintaining social r/ship as well as the role that social cues play in regulating our emo perceptions and expressions  this approach incorporates features of learning perspective in a unified view of emo developm  assumes that the purpose fo emo is the help achieve our goals - goals arouse emos - emo aroused help us reach our goals  emo of fear may lead us to flee dangerous situ, enabling us to achieve the goal of self preservation  this approach recognizes the social nature of emo - use info from others' emo signals to guide our own beh  evaluate the situ and use the feedback from others as a guide  memories from the past = guide in shaping how child will respond emotionally to a situ - ex children who have been socially successful will be more confident in situ where they are rebuffed by potential friends  emos regulate beh and enhance adaption to their envir  no single theoretical perspective alone is likely to integrate all aspects of emo developm - diff theories are useful in answering diff q's  emo responses are shaped by complex interplay between bio and many forces of envir The Development of Emotional Expressions  99% of mothers said their 1 month infants showed interest, 95% of mothers observed joy, 85% anger, 74% surprise, 58% fear, 34% sadness - based judgements on babies beh and the nature of the situ in which beh occurred  researchers distinguish among infants' expressions of emos with coding systems that pay careful attention to changes in baby's facial expressions and bodily movements - diff scores to diff parts of the face and to specific infant movement patterns - use the scores to determine the emotion - ex MAX coding system (Maximally discriminative facial movement)  *** Turning points (evolution of emo expressions and sense of self) pg 200-201 Developmental of Primary Emotions Positive Primary Emotions: Smiling and Laughter  6 months – infant smiled when her mother reached down to pick her up  12 months – laughed and giggled every time the infant and the dad played peekaboo  can see smiles even in newborns  reflex/simple smiles: a newborns infants smile, which appears to reflex some internal stimulus, such as a change in the infant's level of arousal, rather than an external stimulus, such as another person's beh - are usually spontaneous and appear to depend on infants internal state but the exact nature of the internal stimulus is yet unknown  smiles may have adaptive value for baby – ensuring critical caregiver attention and stimulation - means of communication and aid to survival  3-8 weeks old – begin to smile in response to internal events and external elicitors like social stimuli (faces, voices, light touches, gentle bouncing)  more interested in ppl and faces and high pitched voice or combo of voice and face are reliable smile elicitors for babies between 2-6 months  when 3 month olds shown a human face and puppets whose faces varied in their resemblance to a human face, the infants smiled almost exclusively at the human face = infants 2 1/5 and 5 months smiled more at their mothers than they do at a toy - infants know the “real thing” when they see it  as infants grow older, they tend to smile at diff aspects of the face - 4 week old babies look at the eyes - 8-9 week olds look at the mouth as well  at first, babies smile at eyes, then mouth then the entire face and facial expressions  3 months babies start to smile more selectively at familiar faces - smiling begun to signal pleasure and not just arousal - ex 3 month olds show greater increases in smiling when smiles are reinforced by reciprocal smiles and vocalization from mothers than when they are reinforced by equally responsive women who are strangers  infant smiling becomes more discriminating as babies develop  10 month olds reserve a special kind of special smiles (called duchenne smiles), rarely offering it to strangers - involve upturned mouth with wrinkles around the eyes = whole face lights up with pleasure  babies display genuine smiles more in interacting with caregivers than when smiling alone  display smile: combo of duchenne smile and a jaw drop - during play - seen in later phases of tickle games and peekaboo where there is buildup of excitement with a completion of the play bout  there are indvid diff in the amount of smiling a baby does - some of the diff has to do with social responsiveness of the baby's envir - gender is related to babys smiling = girls show more spontaneous smiles than boys - gender diff in smiling is not restricted to infants -> teen girls smile more than teen boys - girls may be genetically better prepared for social interaction than boys bc their greater tendency to smile more often draws others to them -> supports the genetic maturational perspective - yet, rents generally elicit and expect more emos from girls than boys -> genetic and envir factors need to be considered  there are national, ethnic and gender diff in smiling - Canadian adults and US show larger gender diff in smiling than ppl in Britain - EuroAmer males and females differ more in their smiling rates than doAfricanAm, where they show smaller diff in their smiling beh -AArents treat boys and girls more similarly than EuroAm parents do  infants become skilled at laughing by 4 months - useful in maintaining baby's well being , even more than smiling - smiling gradually becomes a sign of pleasure -> laughter leaves us with little doubt of a baby's positive emo and plays a very imp role in caregiver-infant interaction  up to 7 months of age, babies are increasingly likely to laugh at visual, tactile and social events. But their reactions to auditory stimulation remain stable  nature of the stimuli that elicit laughter changes as child develops - 7 months on, social and tactile stimuli begin to be less effective but response to visual stimuli continues to increase  near end of first year, babies respond more to social games, visu displays and other activities in which they participate  end of first year and beginning of second year, infants increasingly smile and laugh in response to activities that they create themselves – ex practice motor accomplishments  as children get older, laughing increases and becomes more of a social event  in a study of 3 – 5 year olds, 95% of laughter occurred in the presence of other children and adults  acting silly = elicitor of laughter in nursery schools Negative Primary Emotions: Fear,Anger, and Sadness Fear  at the same time babies show positive emos in smiles and laughter, they are also learning to be fearful of some events and ppl, esp unfamiliar ones  fear of strangers, which is a neg emo response = evolves more slowly than positive emo expressions  Sroufe distinguishes 2 phases in the mergence of fear - 3 months, infants show wariness, where they respond with distress to an event that has familiar and unfam aspects and which they cannot comprehend and assimilate -> consistent with cog perspective of emo develop - 7-9 months, babies show true fear – immediate neg reaction to an event that has specific meaning for them  early as 4 months show early signs that they recognize familiar ppl but not yet distressed by presence of a stranger - show greater interest in novel ppl and obj - ex look back and forth at mothers and stranger's face as if comparing them  5 months – give stranger a sober stare  6 months – still react to strangers with sober expressions but also likely to show distress - this later increases in freq  7-9 months – earlier wary reactions  compares faces -> looks sober -> shows distress  stranger distress: fear of strangers that emerge in infants around 9 months - developmental milestone - neither inevitable or universal - emerges 7-9 months in several cultures like Hopi Indians - in Efe (Africa), that emphasize shared caregiving among relatives babies show little stranger fear - babies are not all alike in their reactions to strangers  whether a baby is fearful of stranger depends on variables such as: who the stranger is, how she behaves, setting and childs age - **** Table 6-1 pg 205 Factors that alter infant fear of strangers - contextual factors – consistent with functionalist perspective – help determine the way an infant will react to a stranger – ex when meet stranger in own homes = less stranger fear than in unfam settings – ex when on moms lap = less fear - depends on how mother reacts to stranger - degree the situ allows infant some control over extent and pace of the interaction -> when have control over noise and movement of toy or predictability of noise (1 yr olds) = less fearful  social referencing: process of reading emo cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation - changes overtime  as infants develop, more likley to look at mothers face than other parts of body  14-22 month old more aware than 6-9 month olds that their mothers face was the best source of info  when confronted with 3 strangers: adult, adult midget and a child - infants more fearful of adult midget than child - size is less imp than faces and babies react more neg to adult faces than childs  stranger's beh affects degree of stranger distress - when active, friendly wstranger who talks, gestures and smiles... = most 12 month olds show less fear  separation protest: infants distress reaction to being separated from their mother – peaks at 15 months - tends to peak in western infants - also occur in child care - aka separation anxiety - less and less common in childhoods – may reappear in other forms Anger and Sadness  Izard: first neg expressions = startle, disgust (response to bitter tastes), and distress that seems unrelated to external events - 2 1/2- to 3 month olds = begin reliably to display facial expressions of anger, interest, surprise and sadness - early emos prob influenced at the outset by genetic maturational factors - over time, learning and functional perspectives some into play  infants show anger, like adults, in response to particular external events  babies respond to emo provocations in predictable ways at specific ages and anger is elicited by pain and frustration - 2 month olds showed distress when teething biscuit taken away VS 6 month olds respond to same stimulus with expression of anger  sadness is a reaction to pain, hunger, or lack of control but occurs less often than anger  babies are sad when there are breakdowns in parent – infant communication - ex separation from mothers or familiar caregivers may lead to sadness  positive and neg emos serve as imp evolu function that promotes the survival of the infants Development of Secondary Emotions  emotions that children “grow into” over time: pride, shame, guilt and jealousy More Complex Emotions: Pride, Shame, Guilt, and Jealousy  these complex emos requires the ability to differentiate and integrate the roles of multiple factors in a situ and includes the role of personal responsibility  aka secondary/self conscious emos bc they rely on the development of self awareness  these emos emerge toward the mid of the second year of life  the feeling of guilt, requires the development of the sense of personal responsib and the internalization of some moral standards, emerges later than pride and shame Pride and Shame  distinguishing between childs experience of pride and shame -> their emerging sense of the diffs between easy and difficult and between success and failure  3 yr olds: learn that they were more likely to feel pride if they succeeded at difficult tasks rather at easy ones - more shame if failed easy bask but little shame if failed diffic task - solving prob that was not really diffic = joy = succeeding on a diffic task = pride - failing a diffic task = sadness - failing easy task = shame  understanding of pride depends on their ability to entertain multiple emos – ex pleasure at doing a task and happiness that others appreciate the accomplishment, and on their sense of personal agency or effort  7 year olds used “proud” in discussing good outcomes, regardless of whether or not the protagonist in the stories had succeeded through their own efforts - 10 and 18 yr olds realized that “feeling proud” = good outcomes are the result of a person's own effort , not of luck or chance Guilt  children gradually develop an appreciation of the central role of personal responsibility in their beh in relation to other ppl and thus, an understanding of guilt  emerges in mid childhood  6 and 9 yr olds - only 9 yr olds had a clear understanding of this emo and its relation to personal responsibility - 6 yr olds , even when had little control over the outcome of situ, they described themselves as feeling guilty - 9 yr olds recognized that to feel guilty, it is critical to be responsible for the outcome  young children focus on simple outcomes  older children focus on the role of personal responsib, understand that unless they caused the outcome, they need not feel guilty  developm of specific emos is closely entwined with cog advances as the ability to understand causality and thus, personal responsibility Jealousy  can occur as early as 1 yr of age  jealousy is a social emo – occurs among three ppl who have established imp social r/ships  generally, two ppl who have been friends many many years dont experience jealousy in interacting with a new acquaintance  when mothers or fathers played with one child and encouraged his sibling to play alone, both younger and older children expressed jealousy of the sibling who received parental attention - the way that children express their jealousy changes across development - younger children displaced distress - older sibs showed sadness and anger  children who react with jealousy = less able to focus on their play activities than children who show less jealousy  cog understanding of emo helps modify childrens jealous reactions - same for pride and shame  with older sibs, a more sophisticated understanding of emo may be associated with less jealousy and less disturbed beh  experience and expression of jealousy depends on the nature of the r/ship in which this emo arises - children have secure and trusting r/ship with rents – jealousy between sibs is less prevalent - rents are in positive marriage – children are less likely to show jealous reactions with sibs - close r/ship between child and rent and between rents serve as a protective factor in buffering children from jealous reactions Individual Differences in Emotions  there are individ diff among infants and young children in their readiness to express positive or neg emotions  babies who are more sociable show less wariness in encounters with strangers than less sociable infants  the “bold” group of infants approached both the obj and the stranger the “shy” group approached the toy only  Kagan: subset of children he called “behaviourally inhibited” - these children tend to be shy, fearful, and introverted - avoid peers - more anxious and upset by mildly stressful situ than are other children - show atypical physiological reactions , like rapid heart rates, in stressful situ - fearful responses and shyness tend to endure across time - warm, supportive rents can reduce fearfulness and lessen likelihood that their children will continue to be abnormally shy and fearful  individ diff in positive and neg emotionality are related to children's adjustment - 10 yr olds who showed high levels of neg emotionality (fearfulness and irritability) = adjustment difficulties - depressed and have conduct probs - children who were judged emo positive e(high on smiling and laughing) = high self esteem and social competence = better adjustment Recognizing Emotions in Others  Malateata: said between 3 and 6 months , babies are exposed to other's facial expressions 32,000 times - to recognize emos = diverse psycho and neural structures - peak period for face to face interaction with rents -> so facial expressions are an effective way for parents to communicate their feelings and wishes to a child who cannot understand speech yet  in mother infant face to face interactions, babies develop ability to recognize positive emos like joy, earlier than they can recognize neg emos  babies develop ability to recognize joy earlier than they can recognize anger  in a study with 4 and 6 month olds = looked at a face showing joy longer than showing anger  consistent with functionalist perspective, recognizing joy before anger has functional value - joy-anger recognition sequence is consistent with the course of infant's own emo displays - smiling and laughter emerge before fear  children become more discriminating as they develop - 9- 10 year olds can discriminant between Duchenne smiles and non duchenne smiles more reliably than 6-7 yr olds  nature of early experience alters children's ability to recognize emos - learning perspective on emo developo would predict - 3 1/5 month old infants recognize their mothers' emo expressions earlier than they recognize expressions in fathers or strangers  when mothers spent more times interacting directly with their babies = more successful at recognizing their mothers' emo expressions  quality and quantity of interactions between rents and infants make a diff in children's ability to recognize emos  abused children who experience high levels of threat and hostility are able to identify anger expressions more easily than non abused children are , but they are less capable of detecting expressions  early fam envir plays a role in shaping childs ability to recognize emo - culture matters too: Mexican and chinese children were better than EuroAmer or Austral children in recognizing vocal and/or facial emo expressions (China and Mexico value group harmony and focus on others' feelings is one way to achieve that)  harder for babies to learn to recognize expressions of emos in others than it is for them to learn to express emos accurately themselves  2-3 yr olds: show production and recognition skills that are positively correlated - toddlers who send clear emo signals also tend to be good at identifying emos Emotional Regulation and Emotional Display Rules  humans get their first clue for something they began learning even before they were born: found that putting their thumbs in their mouths helps to soothe them  6 month olds who confronted a stranger typically looked away or became fussy, where 18 month olds were more likely to use self soothing and self distraction to cope with uncertain or arousing situs  as infants become toddlers and head toward preschool years, they learn a variety of strats for emo regulation as parents and others start to require them to exert even more control over their emo expressions - the intense and unregulated expressions of infancy give way to expressions that are more modulated - emo expressions become less freq, less variable and more conventionalized, less distinct and less intense and exaggerated  emo regulation abilities are imp predictors of later adjustment - children who were better at regul their anger = less externalizing beh when they entered school - those who were able to distract themselves by shifting attention = less aggressive and disruptive  emotional display rules: rules that indicate which emos may appropriately display in particular situations - learn to separate visible expressions of an emo from its inner experience  8-10 yr olds learn to smile even when they feel unhappy, to feign distress that is not really felt, or to mask amusement when they know they should not laugh  2 yr olds may show understanding of display rules for emo - mirror others' beh by exaggerating or minimizing their emo display  children acquire knowledge about display rules before they proficient regulators of their own emo displays  culture plays an imp role in how children appraise situ, communicate emo and act on their feelings - ex Tamang – buddhist group that endorses interpersonal harmony– children were more likely than other groups to respond to difficult situ with shame - Brahman society – teaches self control in social interaction and the careful control of emos – children didn’t show anger or shame in response to emo upsetting prob - americans – children showed more anger – consistent with US value of self assertion – more prob focused, action oriented than Nepali groups (who were accepting of difficult situ and less likely to seek to alter the situ) How Children ThinkAbout Emotions  children act on their emos and learn to think about the emos Matching Emotions to Situations: Emotional Scripts  emotional scripts: a complex scheme that enables a child to identify the emo reaction that is likely to accompany a particular sort of event  3-4 yr olds - easily identified situs that would head to happiness and they were reasonably good at identifying stories that were linked with sadness or anger - can describe situ that evoke emo like excitement, surprise and fear - know which emos go with which situ  5 yr olds understand only those situ that lead to emo that have a recognizable facial display (ex anger -> frowning) or that lead to a particular kind of beh (ex sadness = crying)  7 yr olds can describe situ that elicit more complicated emo with no obvs facial or beh expressions like pride, jealousy , worry and guilt  10/14 yr olds can describe situ that elicit relief and disappointment  culture matters - children in US react to a request to stop playing and go to bed with anger, but 1 graders in Nepal are happy with such a request - Nepal children value co sleeping with adults so not upset  autistic children are less proficient in their understanding of emo compared to normal functioning children Multiple Emotions, Multiple Causes  awareness that one can have more than one feeling at a time and that one can experience two or more conflicting feelings at the same time develop gradually  childrens ability to understand and express their knowledge of emo emerges slowly and lags well behind their capacity to experience ambivalent emos  children show a clear developm sequence in their ability to understand multiple and conflicting feelings - 5 stages of emo understanding -> only at the fourth stage (age 10) children begin to eb able to conceive of opposite feelings existing at the same time - ****** Table 6-2 pg 216 Children's understanding of multiple and conflicting emotions  children realize that ppls emo expressions are produced by inner states and are not responsive solely to the characteristics of the situ - ex young children get angry when someone wrongs or frustrates them , regardless of whether the act was intentional VS 7 yr olds tend to reserve their anger for situ in which they think a person intended to upset them The Family's role in Emotional Development  3 ways families influence children's emos - **** Figure 6-7Apg 217 model of emotional socialization 1) fam members' own patterns of emo expressiveness serve as models for the child's emo expressiveness 2) parent’s and sibs' specific reactions to children's emo encourage or discourage certain patterns of emotional expressiveness 3) parents act as emo coaches by talking about emos and explaining and exploring children's understanding of their own and other ppls emo responses  learn about how and when to express emos by watching members of their fam  families vary in their emo expressiveness - some are subdued and restrained in emo reactions - some are more demonstrative and engage in more intense and freq emo displays  children who grow up in positive emo home with happiness and joy = more likely to show positive emo - children who are reared in neg fam envir – hostility and conflict = more likely to show neg emo  children who have been abused by rents – esp girls – are more likely to exude shame and less likely to show pride - reflects the intense and freq neg feedback the girls receive from rents  can learn from watching family interact  parents' reactions may contribute to childs emo repertoire by helping them cope more effectively with their emo and by improving their understanding of what emos may approp be displayed  rents reaction are imp to childs emo development - parents who help them with their emo = better able to manage emo upset on their own and more accepted by their peers - parents who are punitive or dismissive of their children's emo, the children are hampered in regulating their own emos - dismissive rents may belittle the child's emo ( ex there is no reason for you to be sad”) or show little interest in how child is feeling (ex dont worry about it, go watch tv) - punitive rents may scold or punish their child for expressing emo, esp neg ones - dismissive or punitive rents “fail to use emo moments as a chance to get closer to the child or help the child learn lessons in emo competence”  parents who are good emo coaches value emo expresion, are aware of their oen emo and willing to help their child with theirs - help = talking about feelings  parents who discuss emos are better at taking the perspective or viewpoint of others and at understanding their own and others' emotions  children from fams in which they are more discussion of feelings = better able to recognize others' emos than children raised in fam where feelings were less discussed  better a child understands emo = more skilled they are in social practices like group prob solving and conflict resolution and more likely to be accepted by peers  parents, peers and sibs function as socializers of emo  pretend play with sibs / friends, characterized by conflict and other intense emo experiences, is associated with increased understanding of other ppl's feelings and beliefs  socialization is a 2 way processes and parent, peer and sibs reactions are shaped by characteristics and beh of the child who are the objs of their endeavours  tempermental diff play a imp role in the socialization of emo - difficult temperment – may require more direct intervention – ex coaching  emo expression, cog competence – are mutually interdependent  social influences play a role in way child come to understand emo in themselves and in others The Development ofAttachment nd  attachment: a strong emo bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the 2 half of the child's first yr  example of cisble signs of attachment: - warm greetins the child gives rents - smiling - stretching arms - active efforts at contact when picked up - touching rent's face and snuggling  attachment can also be seen in child's efforts to stay near rents in unfam situ, crawling or running to their side  attachment can be seen in distress that older babies show when their rents leave them temp  a milestone in first yr of life 
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