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Chapter 10

Developmental Psychology Chapter 10

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Diana Valencia

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY __________ _________ Chapter 10: IntelligenceandAchievement Theories of Intelligence  to formulate theories of intelligence , focus on 3 issues: if intelligence is unitary or multi faceted, if it is determined by genetic or envir factors, and if it predicts academic success and success outside of school  today, generally accepted that intelligence is multi faceted and that both genetic and envir influences contribute to intelligence  issues still on whether heredity is more influ than envir or other way around  intelligence is useful in predicting aca success, job stability and general good health an adjustment FactorAnalyticApproach  some believe that intelligence is a unitary/simple ability that affects everything a person does  factor analysis: stat procedure that can determine which of several factors/scores are closely related to one another without overlapping each other's contribution  Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of general factors (g) and specific factors (s) - general factors: general mental energy, or ability that was involved in all cog tasks – high in g would be expected to do well on all tasks - specific factors: factors unique to particular cog tasks – variation on diff tasks could be attributed to these  Thurstone proposed that 7 primary skills comprise intelligence: verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rate memory , word fluency and spacial visualization  Carroll confirmed the existence of a general factor of cog ability - ppl who do well on one kind of cog test are likely to do well on other such tests - but ppl still vary in competence across diff domains  children vary both in overall level of intellectual ability and in how skilled they are in specific aspects of cog functioning The Information-ProcessingApproach: Sternberg's Triarchic Theory  info processing researchers argue that to understand intelligence, we must assess how individs use info processing capabilities to carry out intelligent tasks  triarchic theory of intelligence: theory proposed by Sternberg that proposes three major components of intelligent beh : info processing skills, experience with a given task or situ and ability to tailor one's beh to the demands of a context - the components word tgthr to organize and guide intelligent beh  information processing skills: required to encode, store and retrieve diff kinds of info  experience: second component of Sternberg's model, considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particulrd intellectual task  context: 3 component – recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from situ in which it is used - one dimension intelligence of particular beh can be measured is its suitability and effectiveness in a particular setting  successful intelligence: Sternberg expanded his triarchic theory into this – considers intelligence in a relation to ability of an individu to meet his own goals and those of his society - successful intelligence requires 3 abilities: analytical, creative and practical - analytical abilities: those taught and tested in school and uni – like reasoning about best answer to a test question - creative abilities: devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns - practical abilities: used in everyday activities like work , school, fam... -> much of this practical knowledge we use is tacit (not explicitly formulated and it is rarely taught directly but learned by observing others)  tacit knowledge: implicit knowledge that is shared by ppl and that guides beh - “common sense” - this knowledge, which is not associated with IQ, predicted salaries and job performance  triarchic theory helped children learn aca material and help adols improve their scores on uni entrance exams - reported to enjoy material more when taught with curricula based on triarchic theory  this approach, when applied to class setting, may benefit child's learning and enhance their motivation to learn Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences  theory of multiple intelligences: proposed by Gardner – suggests that human beings possess 8 kinds of intelligence: linguistic, logical – mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic  ** Table 10-2 pg 387 Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences  3 of the types of intelligence – lingu, logical math and spatial – are similar to the kinds of abilities that are assessed in traditional intelligence tests  according to Gardner, each type of intelligence has its own developmental course in terms of perception, learning, and memory - ex lingu intelligence emphasizes verbal and memory abilities and generally develops over years of edu whereas bodily kines intelligence emphasizes understanding body mechanisms and its coordination with perceptual abilities (early in life and be less dependent on experience)  an individ can display diff combos of these intelligences and diff cultures or periods of history may emphasize or value some of these forms more than others  this view of intelligence corresponds with ideas presented in the domain specific view a of intelligence discussed by evolu psychos  critics: - the intelligences may not all be separate entities – some closely tied while others are distinct - circular theory ex “youre a good dancer bc youre high in bodily intelligence -> which is the definition of dance – youre a good dance bc youre a good dancer” - few effots made to evaluate this theory using standard assessment techn or to develop tests based directly on the theory  used to improve public edu  collaborated on Practical Intelligence for Schools (PIFS) program designed to teach the tacit knowledge needed for success in school -> bring positive effects on students motivation, achievement and beh Testing Intelligence  psychos interested in processes that contribute to intellectual functioning but study and testing of intelligence have traditionally focused on its products  intelligence quotient (IQ): index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform - may ppl think IQ is innate and does not change but research has shown that it can change over the lifespan with modifications by experience  can only infer intellectual capacity from the results of an IQ test  can only measure performance  always a gap between capacity and performance – due to circumstances of performance  3 primary purposes in intelligence testing: - predicting aca performance - predicting performance on job - assessing general adjustment and health  the Bayley, Stanford Binet and Wechsler tests can detect signs of neuro prob, mental retardation, emo distress  traditional tests do not make predictions as accurately for some groups in our society as for others - intelligence tests may unfairly classify some ppl or groups as less intelligent than they actually are  culture fair tests: attempts to exclude or minimize the kind of experimentally or culturally biased content in IQ test that could prejudice test takers' responses  Raven Progressive Matrices test (requires ppl to identify, distinguish and match patterns of varying complexity) and Kaufman test are culture fair tests Measuring Infant Intelligence Bayley Scales of Infant Development  best known and most widely used of all infant development tests  non verbal tests that measure specific developmental milestones and that are generally used with children who are thought to be at risk for abnormal development  designed to be used with young ppl  used with infants and children between 1 month and 3 1/2 years of age  its mental scale includes – looking for hidden obj and naming pics ex  its motor scale includes – items as grasping ability and jumping skills  poor predictors of later cog levels may be bc they rely primarily on sensorimotor measures  this scale is somewhat more reliable with older children Fagan test of Infant Intelligence  a test of how infants process info, including encoding attributes of obj and seeing similarities and diff across obj  measure info processing skills  asses processes like using mental representation  examines infant's intelligence by measuring amount of time the infant spends looking at new obj compared with the time spends looking at familiar one  show one photo of the first pair for 20 sec then show both for 5 sec (this time reverse to remove left or right bias)  no diff between the average scores by 200 infants representing EuroAm, AA, Bahrainians, and Ugandans -> test is culture fair  predicts later cog development better than older tests, but the correlations with later development is weak  infant test are primarily used for diagnostic screening to determine a child's need for early intervention services The Stanford-Binet Test th  stanford binet test: modern version of the test devised in the early 20 century by Binet and Simon to identify children who were unable to learn in traditional classroom settings and who would benefit from special edu  B and S believed that intelligence was malleable and that children's aca performance could be improved with special programs  B and Si rested higher mental functions like comprehension, reasoning and judgement , recalling details of story  they recognized that as children grow they become able to solve more complex prob , B and S built into their test age related changes in child's learning with the aim of tapping child's competence at diff age levels  mental age: originated by Binet – index of a child's actually performance level as contrasted with the child's true age - William Stern devised the formula: IQ = MA/CAx100 - MA= mental age CA= chronological age  Stanford Binet test is an updated version of the Binet Simon test - includes lang and math skills ex The Wechsler Scales  **TABLE 10-3 pg 391 The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4 Ed (WISC-IV)  WIS: developed by David Wechsler – include the Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI) , weschsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) and the one for adults (WAIS) - these tests yield separate verbal and performance IQ scores as well as a combined, full scale IQ score  WISC includes items related to how children process info, focusing on memory, strat use, and processing speed - these items were added bc they may be less influ by experience with school or cultural or eco factors  deviation IQ: like the Binet IQ, takes 100 as an average score - an IQ score that indicates the extent to which a person's performance on a test deviates from age mates' average performance - use standard deviation yo see the extent to which the non average scores deviate from the norm  normalized with Canadian sample The KaufmanAssessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)  K- ABC:an intelligence test designed to measure several types of info-processing skills as well as achievement in some aca subj  measures several types of info processing skills grouped into 2 categories - sequential processing (solving prob in a step by step fashion) - simultaneous processing (examining and integrating a wide variety of materials in the solution of a problem)  assesses achievement in aca subj like vocab and arithmetic and efforts have been made to design the test items (many non verbal) to be culture fair  test designers used a wide and representative sample of many NAcultural and socio eco groups in establishing forms for the test  if child fails early items on a subscale, the examiner teachers the child how to complete these items before the child does the rest of the subtest - this ensures that no child who is capable of learning unfamil task receives a failing score on it Constructing Measures of Intelligence  psychometrician: psycho who specializes in the constructing and use of tests designed to measure various psycho constructs, like intelligence, motivation, achievement orientation, and personality characteristics  if theory emphasizes info processing, items will be designed to tap processing functions, speed and strat a person uses to solve a prob  certain goals and principles are shared by all constructors of intelligence tests  goals and principles include how norms for a test are established , how the test is standardized and the imp of determining a test's validity and reliability Development of Norms and Standards  test norms: values that describe the typical test performance of a specific group of ppl  age is critical factor when setting norms for children's test performance  score relative to scores of other children their age continues to be the significant factor in eval their intellectual development  psychometricians dont agree on whether comparison groups in intelligence testing should be equated based on factors as level of edu, socio eco class or gender  eval test performance, always consider how closely attributes and experience of the person being tested approx those of the group that was used to estab the test norms  standardization: process where test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions and scoring are identical on every testing occasion Test Validity and Reliability  must be valid to provide useful info - it must measure what it claims to measure  must be reliable - individs scores must be consistent over diff times of measurement  establishing validity of intelligence test: - link performance on test with some other measure (a criterion) - criterion validity: extent to which a test is associated with a specific criterion that is believed to be associated with the skills being test - more freq used criteria are achievement test scores, grades, teachers ratings of cog ability and performance on other intelligence tests - intelligence tests are more successful in predicting school performance than in predicting things like creativity or social skills - intelligence test scores are more closely related to math prob solving and reading comprehension than to ability in drama art or music  reliability is critical for eval the utility of an intelligence test too - scores must not fluctuate unpredictably from one time to another -> bc a chief goal of these tests is to predict persons performance beyond a single administration of the test - captures how much a test is useful across administrations Stability of Measured Intelligence  Binet and Weschslers scales - focus on products of intelligence and measure current performance - showed that IQ scores are not stable over time but fluctuate  today, it suggests that there is stability and change in intellectual functioning over time Predictive Value of Infant Testing  most of the info on consistency of performance on intelligence tests derives from longit studies - ex Berkeley Guidance Study, Berkely Growth Study and Fels Longit Study -> they found no sign relation between intelligence test scores from infancy and those attained later in childhoods or adulthood  recent research focus on info processing abilities (attentional processes ex -> which was found to have higher correlations with later cog measures)  within attentional processes, studies have followed habituation and recovery - habituation: infants ability to discontinue attending to stimulus after several presentations - recovery: infant's ability to recognize a new stimulus – and give attention to it instead of the familiar one  Fagan found signif but moderate correlations between infants' attention at 7 months and their intellectual functioning at 3 and 5 years  Bornsteina and Sigman found strong relations between attentional measures in infants and scores of children on intell test at 3 -6 yrs  parental beh and child's own emo related characteristics may have a signif impact on infants intelligence Changing in Children's IQ Over Time  from mid years of childhood onwards, intelligence tests are fairly reliable predictors of later performance on such tests  variability in IQ scores reflects the fact that diff children develop cog at diff rates of speed  variations in cog development affect the reliability of the IQ scores , as experimental factors may also contribute to changes in IQ  stressful life events can cause at least temp disruptions in cog performance - most dramatic changes in IQ over time = experienced major changes in life  avrg IQ scores in the nations increased by 15 points during this time (1932 -2002) - this trend = Flynn Effect  Flynn Effect: general trend toward an increase in avrg IQ test scores across subsequent generations of the 20 centuryth  gains were observed in measures tapping prob solving ability but not in measures involving learned material  most changes in IQ are likely to occur at ages 6 and 10 years  a change at age 6 may be associated with the shift at about that age to higher levels of abstract reasoning and conceptual ability (as Piaget said) and possibility a shift from a preschool to a school envir for children - reasons for shift at 10 years are less clear Who Do People Differ in Measured Intelligence  Jensen claimed that 80% of diff in IQ among ppl was attributable to genetics, or inherited factors and only small proportion of diff to social envir factors How Much of Intelligence Is Inherited?  Heritability of intelligence = prop of the variability in intelligence attributable to genetic factors  some say no evidence that heredity and envir are truly separate  the bell curve – argued that intelligence is genetically based (Murray and Hernstein) Views That Emphasize the Heritability of IQ  measures of intelligence used to support argu for high levels of herit in IQ are often based on trad views of intell functioning  Jensen: most outspoken on herit position - proposed 2 types of learning (both inherited but each distinct) - association learning: level 1 learning – lower level learning involving skills as short term mem, rote learning, attention and simple associative skills - cognitive learning: level II learning – higher level learning involving abstract thinking, symbolic processes, conceptual learning and use of lang in prob solving (ex how are apples and bananas alike)  most intelligence tests measure predominantly cog abilities - some tap associative learning ab  associative learning is equally distributed across all ppl but level II learning is more concentrated in mid class and NA groups of Euro lineage than in working class or NAgroups of African lineage  since ppl tend to marry within their own groups, diff between cog learning across pop, as measured in IQ test will tend to increase over time  IQ gap between racial groups has been decreases Culture and Inheritance  envir conditions will influence the extent to which an inherited ability can be expressed  in cultures with adverse health and or nutritional factors, genetic contributions to phys stature are lessened relative to more advantages situations  genes depend on envir for their expression  poor nutrition, disease and stress due to a variety of factors may overwhelm and min the genetic contribution to intelligence and intellectual performance The Malleability of Inherited Characteristics  finding evidence for genetic influences in a pop doesnt suggest that diff among individs are unchangeable Environmental Factors  quality and amount of stimulation offered to children in varying conditions affect their intellectual development Pregnancy and Birth  factors liek poor maternal nutrition can highly influ and lasting effects on child  neg effects on intellectual develop from maternal disease (exAIDS) or mother's alcoholism or addiction to other drugs  events attending to process of birth can have destructive effects on child's mental functioning  congenital: describing deficits or defects that child incurs in womb or during birth process - rather genetic in origin, either transmitted directly from mother to fetus or results from events during birth process The Family  supportive, warm home envir that encourages a child to become self reliant, to express her curiosity and to explore has been linked to higher intellectual functioning  rents who are emo and verbally responsive to children, who provide variety of learning experiences and who encourage their children's interest in and efforts at learning tend to have children with higher IQ scores - but such fam envir do NOT uniformly produce high achieving children  even thought in same fam and have shared envir – still have non shared envir  home envir tends to be influenced by inherited intelligence factors , so way fam envir is related to child’s intellectual functioning are complex Schools and Peer Groups  more years of school and higher quality edu are related to increases in intelligence scores - deficits in edu may cause IQ scores to decline  declines in intellectual skills associated with lack of formal edu, dropping out and too much time off from school  children who attended a high quality preschool have higher skill levels than children who have not, even when the two groups are similar in socio eco status, fam envir and prior skill levels  poor and minority students in inner city and rural neighbourhoods often face a substantial disadvantage in school quality compared to wealthier areas - no preschool experience and with lower levels of skills  disadvantaged students tend to fall further behind as they progress into mid and high school  cultural diff and neg teachers attitudes may also hinder adjustment and learning  peers influence children's attitudes toward and success in school  peer groups in asian am students supported each others' aca pursuits and participated in edu related activities vs anti acad attitudes among african am students -> bc of the strong adoles need to belong in peer culture, effect of neg achievement from their peers may often outweigh parental encouragement of aca achievement  sometimes, afri am children who succeed in school choose strats to hide their true attitudes toward school work and actual efforts to achieve acad success (ex take on a role or excel in sports to disguise their intell pursuits) The Community  community as cultural unit may have signif effects on child's cog and intell development  children living in isolated circumstances like rural areas, score lower on IQ tests  eco disadvantaged areas of modern cities are associated with slowed intell development  poor diet, unsafe housing and high levels of community violence and unemployment that characterize impoverished areas may contribute to less adequate cog functioning  in so
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