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PSYB20H3 (156)
Chapter 5

Developmental Psychology - Chapter 5 (Part 2)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Diana Valencia

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY ___________________ Chapter 5: TheChild'sGrowth– Brain,Body,MotorSkillsandSexualMaturation(Part2) Physical Growth  phys growth is guided by two principles - cephalocaudal development - proximal distal pattern  cephalocaudal development: growth occurs head downward – brain and neck develop earlier than the legs and trunk  proximal distal pattern: tendency for human physical development to occur from centre outward – ex, from internal organs to arms and legs -internal organs develop earlier than arms and hands  young infants reached for obj two weeks earlier with their feet than they did with hands – more complex motor skills with parts of the body further away from the head (the feet) than body parts closer to the head (the hands)  height and weight = two principal measures of overall growth  babies grow faster in first half year of life than ever again - double their weight in first three months and triple their weight by the end of the first year  their shape changes too – ex newborns' top heavy light bulb shaped bodies become cylindrical and infants centre of mass moves from sternum to below the belly button  growth is episodic rather than continuous  dramatic growth spurts can occur in a single day  normal healthy babies grow in fits and starts Do Genes Affect Height and Weight  genetic factors, along with envir factors, influence height and weight  genetic factors may determine as much as 2/3 of the variance in these characteristics  strong relation b/w weights of adopted children and their bio parents but no relation between adoptees and adoptive parents' weight  identical twins are twice as likely to resemble each other in weight as are fraternal twins  twins reared apart who didnt share common envir still showed similarity in weight  gender has an effect on height and weight  girls tend to be taller than boys from age 2 until 9  at 10 1/2 years old, girls have a growth spurt  age 14, girls' height almost plateaus, and boys continue to grow taller until 18  girls tend to weight less than boys in early years then exceed them in weight until about age 14 when their weight gain slows down , while boys' gain continues to increase  tempo of growth: variability in the timing of changes in infants' and childrens' growth The Influence of Environmental Factors  growth influenced by envir influences too , like nutrition, phys and psycho disorders and climate  when envir conditions are favourable, individ growth curves tend to be very similar, but in the presence of unfavourable conditions (like inadequate nutrition, poor caregiving) growth rates can be depressed  ppl in NW and W eyro countries are taller than those in S Euro  ppl vary in growth within the same country  in Brazil and India ppl (urban area – nutrition and standards of living are high) tend to be taller than rural dwellers  in US – children in upper-mid class fams are taller and heavier than children in fam living in poverty Nutrition  good nutrition is critical for poper development from infancy to adolsc Bottle-vs Breast-feeding  breast feeding is best for babies' healthy development  benefits for infants and mothers with breast feeding include: protection against infectious disease, better development of the brain and NS and reduction in the likelihood of sudden infant death syndrome  young ppl in Britain and in New Zealand who were breastfed = higher intelligence than bottle-fed children , but only if the infants had a specific genetic makeup - children who were genetically predisposed to benefit from fatty acids present in breast milk showed the advantage in IQ, those without this genetic makeup did not benefit from breast feeding  breast feeding helps women lose the weight gained from preg and delays ovulation  breast feeding promotes closeness b/w mother and baby  breast feeding is imp for mothers and children in developing countries  bottle fed babies in developing countries are 14x more likely than breast fed babies to die from diarrhea and 4x more likely to succumb to respiratory ailments  if babies were only fed breast milk for first 6 months of life, lives of 1.5 million infants would be saved/yr  in US, 60% breast feed for several months but at 6 months the % drops  women who are 25, of higher socio eco status and better edu are more likely to breast feed than younger poorer women  some cant breast feed bc of med conditions –AIDs or tuberculosis or bc they are being treated for illnesses  babies that get appropriate formula based bottle nutrition develop normally esp in W countries  ** table 5-2 pg 177 (advantages of breast-feeding for infants and mothers) Nutrition and Physical Growth  nutrition plays a controlling role in phys growth  nutrition factors can affect the age children enter puberty – during WWII, girls in France did not achieve menarche (onset of menstruation) until 16 years old -> 3 years later than the pre ward norm - stress contributed to this delay too  the provision of food supplements for entire fams from mid preg until a child was 3 years effectively prevented severe growth retardation in children at risk for malnutrition  children who got food supplements remained taller and heavier than control children at 6 years of age  changing traditional unhygienic practices improved children's health, growth and nutrition  parents used safer methods of food preparation and waste disposal = lessened food contamination and reduced the incidence of diarrhea  iron deficiency anemia: disorder in which inadequate amounts of iron in the diet cause listlessness and may retard a child's physical and intellectual development - common in poor minority children and children in low income countries (esp countries with little meat in diets) - interventions in Kenya and Zanzibar on iron/meat supplements = improved children's rates of growth and motor and mental development Catch up Growth  catch up growth: tendency for human beings to regain a normal course of physical growth after injury or deprivation  degree of catch up growth the child can achieve depends on the duration, severity and timing of the original deprivation and the nature of the subsequent treatment or therapy  malnourished infants who were 5% deficit in height were able to catch up but not infants that were 15% (they remained significantly shorter)  catch up growth after severe malnutrition may be limited to only some aspects of growth -> ex failed to enable full development in head circumference and only some catch up growth in height -> this my account for intellectual and attentional deficits shown by the malnourished children  timing is critical in determining the degree of catch up growth  the earlier and more prolonged the malnutrition = more difficult for interventions to be fully effective in achieving normal growth PeopleAre Grthing Talthr  between 11 and 14 centuries, average englishman was 5f 6 inches tall, where today the average british male is 5 ft 9 inches tall  secular trend: shirt in the normative pattern of a characteristic, like height or weight, that occurs over a historical time period , like a decade or century - an average  the same increase in height may not occur in every level of society  NA's feet are growing longer too – gaining a third of an inch in each generation  average male wears 9-10  ppl achieving growth increases at earlier ages than in the past - in past ppl didnt attain adult height until early or mid 20s but today many 16 and 17 year olds are often as tall or taller than parents  possible reasons for historical trends toward greater height 1) health and nutrition have improved in many countries - growth retarding illnesses have come under control, esp those that strike in the first 5 years of life (ex marasmus – caused by insufficient protein and calories, or kwashiorkor – caused by insufficient protein) - some places nutritional intake improved in both quantity of food consumed and balance among essientail food groups - med care and personal health have improved too 2) socio-eco conditions have improved - child labour is less common - living conditions improved 3) influence of genetic factors has been affected by things like intermarriage (diff races and ethnic bg), which produces increases in height of offspring  if we experience a major change in envir , average height of pop could shift again Are We Growing Heavier? Obesity and Eating Disorders  children and adult in NA, England, W Euro, Japan andAustralia are growing heavier  obesity: condition in which a person's weight is 30% or _ in excess of the average weight for their height and frame  young girls who are most likely to suffer from preoccupation with weight  in a study of australian children – 60% of girls wanted a thinner body, 35% of boys wanted to be thinner  mid adolescence – 70%-80% of NAgirls have been on at least one diet Why Do Children Gain Too Much Weight?  In NA, 18% of children are obese  recently in CND, prevalence of obesity has increased to 35% in 7 to 13 year old boys and 15% in 7 to 13 year old girls  trend towards obesity varies across diff ethnic groups and genders  +20% of mexican am boys and african am girls are overweight  asian americans are the least likely to be overweight  many children are overweight -> based on level of caloric intake enjoyed by children at this age with a growing trend toward physical inactivity  lack of physical activity i s associated with childhood obesity  62% of canadians are relatively inactive  children are choosing tv, internet and video games instead of active activities  genetic factors play a role in obesity - risk of obesity was greater among first degree relatives than spouses  identical twins are twice as likely to resemble each other in weight as are fraternal twins  newborn infants with two overweight parents were more responsive to the contrast between a sweet tasting solution and plain water than infants of normal weight parents  babies' genetically determined sucking patterns predict later obesity  children who are overweight tend to stay that way  overweight infants tend to become obese children who develop into obese adolesc and are still obese in adulthood  edu and income play a role in obesity - income increases = decrease in likelihood that excess weight constitutes a health risk - chances of being overweight decrease with more edu - canadians with less than a HS edu are one and a half times more likely than uni grads to face a health risk due to being overweight  modelling by others affect children's eating beh - parents of obese children encourage them to eat more than their thinner siblings and offer them eating prompts twice as often as parents of normal weight children  obese children and adoles suffer from diff physical problems – asthma, sleep prob, hypertension and diabetes - high cholesterol levels (esp if they are boys) -> this predisposes them to high bp and other cardiovascular probs  overweight children suffer psychologically  overweight adolesc date less and are less likely to be admitted to prestigious colleges than thinner classmates Treating Overweight Children  to control children's weight its mp to involve the fam in treatment program  parents encourage children's overeating by tying eating to external cues and by their own eating habits  interventions with fam reduce the likelihood of stressful interactions with fam at mealtime – can help curb overeating  encourage parents to be models of good eating and phys exercise, 34% of children succeeded in losing 20% or + of their overweight poundage , and at 10 years after the study, 30% were no longer obe
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