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Canada (161,382)
Psychology (9,688)
PSYB20H3 (156)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary and Key Terms.pdf

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Ella Daniel

Chapter 1 Summary and Key TermsThe Field of Child DevelopmentWhat is the field of child development and what factors stimulated its expansionChild development is an area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence It is part of the larger interdisciplinary field developmental science which includes changes throughout the lifespan Research on child development has been stimulated both by scientific curiosity and social pressures to better childrens lives How is child development typically divided into domains and periodsDevelopment is often divided into physical cognitive and emotional and social domains These domains are not distinct they combine in an integrated holistic fashionResearchers generally divide child development into the following age periods 1 the prenatal period conception to birth 2 infancy and toddlerhood birth to 2 years 3 early childhood 2 to 6 years 4 middle childhood 6 to 11 years and 5 adolescence 11 to 18 years To describe the prolonged transition to adulthood typical of contemporary young people in industrialized nations researchers have posited a new period of development emerging adulthood spanning ages 18 to 25 yearsBasic IssuesIdentify three basic issues on which child development theories take a standEach theory of child development takes a stand on three fundamental issues 1 is development a continuous process or is it discontinuous following a series of distinct stages 2 Does one general course of development characterize all children or are there many possible courses influenced by the contexts in which children grow up 3 Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development the naturenurture controversy and are individual differences stable or characterized by substantial plasticityRecent theories take a balanced stand on these issues In addition contemporary researchers realize that answers may vary across domains of development and even as research on resilience illustrates across individualsHistorical FoundationsDescribe major historical influences on theories of child developmentAs early as medieval times the sixth through the fifteenth centuries childhood was regarded as a separate period of lifeIn the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Puritan conception of original sin led to a harsh philosophy of child rearing The seventeenth century Enlightenment brought a new emphasis on human dignity and respect that led to more humane views of childhood Lockes notion of the child as a tabula rasa blank slate provided the basis for twentieth century behaviorism while Rousseaus view of children as noble savages foreshadowed the concepts of stage and maturationInspired by Darwins theory of evolution efforts to observe children directly began in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Soon after Hall and Gesell introduced the normative approach which produced a large body of descriptive facts about children Binet and Simon constructed the first successful intelligence test which sparked interest in individual differences in development and led to a heated controversy over nature versus nurtureBaldwins theory was ahead of its time in granting nature and nurture equal importance and regarding children and their social surroundings as mutually influentialMidTwentiethCentury TheoriesWhat theories influenced child development research in the midtwentieth centuryIn the 1930s and 1940s psychiatrists and social workers turned to the psychoanalytic perspective for help in treating childrens emotional and behavior problems In Freuds psychosexu
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