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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Developmental Psych.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 10: Intelligence and Achievement  In attempting to formulate useful theories of intelligence, scientists have focused on three primary issues: whether intelligence is unitary or multi-faceted, whether it is determined by genetic or environmental factors and whether it predicts academic success and success outside school.  It is accepted today that intelligence is multi-faceted and that both genetic and environmental influences contribute to a person’s intelligence. Still debate of whether hereditary is more important than environment  Early investigators believed that intelligence is a unitary ability that affects everything a person does. To test this idea, reasearchers have performed factor analysis on intelligence tests. This is a statistical procedure that can determine which of several factors are closely related to one another without overlapping each other’s contribution.  Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of a general factor (g) and a number of specific factors (s). G factors were general mental energy or ability in cognitive tasks and s factors were unique to particular tasks. Person with high g would do well on all tasks. Variations in task performance due to varying amounts of s  Thurstone challenged this by proposing 7 primary skills comprise intelligence: verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word fluency and spatial visualization  Carroll and other researchers have confirmed the existence of a general factor of cognitive ability. However, people still vary in their competence across different domains, like vocab, math etc.  Information Processing researches focus on the process involved in intellectual activity. They argue that to understand intelligence, we must assess how individuals use information processing capabilities such as memory and problem solving to carry out intelligence tasks.  Sterberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence is an important example of this approach. It processes three major components of intelligent behaviour: information processing skills, experience with a given task or situation and the ability to tailor one’s behaviour to the demands of a context  These 3 components work together to guide intelligent behaviour  IPS are used to encode, store, and retrieve information. Experience considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task. Context recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used.  People must be able to adapt to the requirements of a situation and to select and arrange situations to meet their own abilities and needs. One dimension in which intelligence of a specific behaviour can be tested is suitability and effectiveness  He expanded his theory into a theory of successful intelligence, which considers intelligence in relation to the ability of an individual to meet his own goals and those of his society.  Successful intelligence requires 3 abilities: analytical, creative, and practical. Analytic abilities include those taught and tested in schools, like reasoning about best answers. Creative are involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns. Practical are used in everyday activities.  Tactic=learned through observation  Tactic knowledge (common sense) is shared by many people and guides intelligent behaviour  Applications of sternberg’s theory in school is successful , kids enjoy the material more  Howard Garner has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences. Eight kinds of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal and th naturalistc. Possible 9 is spiritual or existential intelligen
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