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PSYB21H3 (18)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Review.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 8 Review • The essential feature of love is the experience, it feels like something to love and what it feels like is loves defining attribute • Emotional experience differ on two dimensions called valence(how positive or negative the experience is) and arousal (how active or passive the experience is) • Emotion can be defined as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity. • As William James wrote “bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact...and feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion • The Cannon bard theory of emotion suggested that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain • The first autonomic nervous system reacts too slowly to account for the rapid onset of emotional experience. Eg. A blush is an autonomic response to embarrassment that takes 15 to 30 seconds to occur • People often have difficulty accurately detecting changes in their own autonomic activity such as their heart rates. • Cannon argued that there simply weren’t enough unique patterns of autonomic activity to account for all the unique emotional experiences people have. • Schachter and singer claimed that different emotions are merely different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity which they called “undifferentiated physiological arousal” • Schachter and singer’s two factor theory of emotion claimed that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal • The James-Lange theory of emotion – which asserts that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotion experience in the brain. According to his theory emotional experience is the consequence and not the cause, of our physiological reaction to objects and events in the world • Anger, fear and sadness each produced a higher heart rate then disgust. • Certain patterns of activity in the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system seem uniquely related to pro-social emotions such as compassion • James and Lange were right when they suggested that patterns of physiological response are not the same for all emotions. • Cannon and Bard were right when they suggested that people are not perfectly sensitive to these patterns of response, which is why people must sometimes make inferences about what they are feeling. Our bodily activity and our mental activity are both the causes and the consequences of our emotional experience. • Normal people have superior memory for emotionally evocative words like death, but people whose amygdalae are damaged do not • The route in which information about a stimulus is transmitted in the brain are along two distinct routes, the “fast pathway” which goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala, and the “slow pathway” which goes to the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amagdala. • Adults and children who have cortical damage have difficulty inhibiting their emotions. • Emotion is a primitive system that prepares us to react rapidly and on the basis of little information to things that are relevant to our survival and well- being. • Emotion regulation refers to the cognitive and behavioural strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience. • One of the most effective strategies for emotion regulation is reappraisal which involves changing ones emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus. • The inability to reappraise events lies at the heart of psychiatric disorders such as depression • An emotional expression is an observable sign of an emotional state. • Underneath every face lies 43 muscles that are capable of creating more than 10,000 unique configuration • Darwin ; The Universality hypothesis suggests that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone. • The one striking exception to this rule was Fore had trouble distinguishing expressions of surprise from expressions of fear. • The six universal expressions are: Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. • The Facial feedback hypothesis suggests that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify • Display rules are norms for the control of emotional expression and following them requires using several techniques: Intensification: involves exaggerating the expression of one’s emotion, as when a person pretends to be more surprised by a gift then she really is. Deintensification : involves muting the expression of one’s emotion, as when the loser of a contest tries to look less distressed then he is. Masking: involves expressing one emotion while feeling another, as when a poker player tries to look distressed rather then delighted as she examines a four of a kind. Neutralizing: involves feeling an emotion but displaying no expression. • Micro Expressions: Morphology : Certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control, and for a trained observer, these so-called reliable muscles are quite revealing. Symmetry: Sincere expressions are a bit more symmetrical than insincere expressions. Duration: Sincere expressions tend to last between half a second and 5 second, and expressions that last for shorter or longer periods of time are likely to be insincere. Temporal patterning: Sincere expressions appear and disappear smoothly over a few seconds whereas insincere expressions tend to have more abrupt onsets and offsets • Lies are often measured these days by a machine called a polygraph • Motivation refers to the purpose for or psychological cause of an action • The Hedonic princ
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