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PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Key Terms

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 3 Social Learning and Culture Positive Reinforcement: rewarding socially desirable behaviour to increase likelihood of behaviour occurring in the future Behaviourism: is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment. B.F. Skinner was arguably behaviourisms most ardent enthusiast. John Watson launched behaviourist movement. Utilitarianism: put forth the idea that the good society should make for the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people. More egalitarian, equality for all Associationism: purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or associated, with each other into meaningful units. Simple forms of learning proceed via associations. Classical Conditioning: Represents one such form of simple learning Pavlov. Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus conditioned response Stimulus generalization: the expansion of a conditioned response so that it is evoked in response to a wide variety of stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way Higher-order conditioning: conditioned stimuli, which have obtained their eliciting power through associations with unconditioned stimuli, come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the association. Instrumentaloperant conditioning: another form of learning, behaviour is modified by its consequences. Positive consequences for a behaviour increase the likelihood of its recurrence, thus reinforcing the association between the behaviour and the various stimuli in the environment present at the time the behaviour occurred. Negative consequences decrease likelihood of behaviour recurring, thus weakening stimulus-response connections. (Skinner) Concepts of Operant Conditioning Concept Definition Positive reinforcer Any stimulus that, because of its presentation after a response, strengthens (increases probability of) the response. In effect, the organism is rewarded for the www.notesolution.com
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