Textbook Notes (367,823)
Canada (161,434)
Psychology (9,688)
PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3: Social Learning and Culture

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 3: Social Learning and Culture Positive reinforcement rewarding socially desirable behaviour Behaviourism and Social-Learning Theory American environmentalism: The Behaviourist Tradition o Behaviourism focused on how the envir shape observable behaviour and have surfaced in social-learning theories of personality o Utilitarianism: an idea that a good society should make the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people; more egalitarian; advocate for equality of gender; pragmatic (practical) and nondogmatic; supports behaviourism that a persons life can be changed by learning since it is shaped by pleasure and pain o Classical Conditioning: unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits an unconditioned response (UR); neutral stimulus (NS) presented before (US) becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) when the (NS) elicits the UR or now the conditioned response (CR); effect of association o ^example: Little Albert: NS rat, CR fear of rat, US loud noise, UR fear; stimulus generalization when Little Albert elicit fear when he sees white furry obj o Higher order conditioning: when CS are used as a US for other NS by virtue of association o This association can be found feelings elicited by words and phobias o What is learned can be unlearned o Operant conditioning (instrumental): behaviour modified by consequences o Shaping process of reinforcing closer and closer approx to desired behaviour in an attempt to elicit that behaviour o Discriminant stimuli different appropriate behaviour for different settings (ie. Child in classroom vs playground); in multitude of settings, a behaviour is reinforced then generalization will occur o Partial reinforcement a particular response rewarded intermittently o Continuous reinforcement a response rewarded everytime o If response not reinforced, extinction can occur o Positive and negative reinforcer any stimulus, presented or removed after response, respectively increases the probability of response o Conditioned generalized reinforcer reinforcer that is associated with a variety of other reinforcer like money o Emphasizes on empirical studies and quantification Expectancies and Values o Rotter introduced cognition to behaviourist accounts of human personality o A person actively constructs hisher reality rather than merely responding o Expectancy (E) subjectively probability that a specific reinforcement will occur after eliciting the desired behaviour; can have different expectancies for different situations; expect good grade if work hard, www.notesolution.com
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