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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Personality Traits – Fundamental Concepts and Issues

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 4: Personality Traits Fundamental Concepts and Issues The Idea of Trait What is a Trait? o Internal dispositions that are relatively stable over time and across situations (109) o In bipolaropposites terms; has a continuum (very friendly to very unfriendly), extraversion vs intraversion o Can be combined with other traits and independent from each other o Broad individual differences in socioemotional functioning (general behavioural patterns in response to emotional tendencies); intelligence and other cognitive variables not considered in personality domain o Internal, general, global and stable o Consistency in thought, feeling and behaviour associated with social interaction and socioemotional aspects of life o 1.) Neurophysiological substrates traits are biological patterns in the CNS that cause behaviour to occur; therefore the consistencies across situations and over time in socioemotional functioning o 2.) Behavioural despositions traits are tendencies to (desposition) act, think or feel in consistent ways that interact with environmental influences (cultural norms, situational variables etc) o 3.) Act frequencies traits are categorization of behavioural acts. So traits are described in behaviours like extraversion dancing in front of crowd and entering into convo in an unknown group o 4.) Linguistic categories traits are imagined terms by the observers to categorize and make sense of human behaviours and experience. Thus traits do not exist outside observers mind and therefore cannot explain behaviour through traits o 1 suggest biological; 2 dispositional nature; 3 traits connect to functionally similar behaviours; 4 trait labels useful in everyday social recognition o 1 and 2 assume traits impacts behaviour while 3 and 4 argue traits are convenient categories to describe behaviours that people show o Modern has a blending of the four A Brief History of Trait (111) o Theophrastus, a botanist and pupil of Aristotle made first trait taxonomies by depiction of semihumourous character sketches of different types of people that one might encounter in their life (ie Penurious Man aka Scrooge) o Galen four humours (bodily fluids assoc with behavioural traits) blood; sanguine dominant, bold and robust in temperament, black bile; melancholic depressed anxious, pessimistic and brooding, yellow bile; choleric restless, irritable, explode when angered and phlegm aloof, apthetic, cold and sluggish emphasis harmony in the different mixes www.notesolution.com
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