Provided first and possibly only theory of personality.
Structure (id, ego and super ego)
Dynamics (conscious vs. unconscious)
Development (oral – anal – phallic- latency – genital.)
Freud introduced the talking cure (psychotherapy)
o Many of his ideas are still used today.
o He believed the early childhood is important, the internal conflicts and
anxieties and ego defenses.
Freud believed that everything comes to sex and aggression (libido)
Defense mechanisms defend us against anxiety.
Freud text and subtext:
o Manifest content, text: the surface and conscious level of experience. For
instance the dream you appear having.
o Latent content: subtext: the hidden and unconscious level of experience.
The underlying meaning of the dream.
Behavior is not only determined but over determined, so many elements that
determine the behavior.
o All the factors compete.
o Behavior is like a treaty, or compromise among conflicting forces
o Compromises include: dreams, neurotic symptoms and parapaxes (slips of
Dream work: movement of latent to manifest level.
o Process is spontaneous and unconscious process.
o Symbolic representation: conversion of abstract wishes and urges into
Things symbolize something else.
o Condensation/compression: compression of multiple latent msgs into one
o Displacement: shift on emphasis of important threatening source by a safer
o Secondary revision: making all scattered dream elements into a smooth
o Movement of manifest to latent level.
o Attempt to discern latent intrapsychic conflict via
Free association: say whatever comes to mind about the dream
Interpretation: analysts interpret the dream, best guess.
Resistance: When the latent conflict comes up, resistance will come
up to fight back against it.
Insight: if resistance is surpassed, the dreamer will understand
Same insight must occur repeatedly for it to stick (working
He looked at his own struggles of inferiority to study.
All human behaviors are linked to deep rooted feelings of inferiority.
Organ inferiority: o Idea that every person will succumb to disease to whichever organ that is
least developed and generally inferior.
o Principle of equilibrium: inferior organs compensate for their own defects,
potentially overcompensating and being stronger.
o Psychology that comes with organ inferiority.
o Where we have organ inferiority, we also have feelings of inferiority.
o We strive to compensate to feel competent, autonomous and superior due
to our inferiority,
Striving for superiority:
o Feeling of inferiority with comparing themselves to peers, feelings of
o People make fictional goals of where they want to be, from where they are
o Tension between inferiority and superiority. ( human universal)
o Rationalizing strategies: using one’s own symptoms as reasons or excuses
to escape life’s demands
o Aggressive strategies: devaluing others in comparison to oneself, blaming
others for ones inferiority, or blaming others to get sympathy or attraction,
o Distancing strategies: avoiding participation in life to avoid challenging
situations where there is risk of failure.
Earliest memories/style of life:
o Style of life: our own way of interpreting our own inferiority and way of
overcoming this feeling.
o Earliest memories: not always factual or correct but has significant
Freud’s right hand man.
Believed in introversion (orientation towards self, slightly on the defensive, where
one is orientated away from external) and extraversion (orientation towards
environment, outgoing, candid and accommodating nature).
o Sensation tells you something, sum total of facts.
o Thinking: what something is
o Feeling: the worth of something
o Intuition: where something came from and going to.
Structure of psyche:
o Believed like Freud that there is a conscious part, the conscious ego.
o Personal unconscious, composite of preconscious and unconscious mind.
Thoughts, feeling and memories that are part of long term memory, and
those that are repressed as to not threaten the ego.
o Collective unconscious: inherited ancestral memory. Deeper than personal
unconscious, it is not personal, impersonal/transpersonal. Not unique to
you. Common to us all (human beings) archetypes is what is in our
collective unconscious, patterns/templates, how we structure our events.
The hero: finest expression of human symbol making. Modest or
humble birth, early signs of power, rapid rise to prominence, fall through betrayal or heroic sacrifice. Triumphant struggle against
The shadow: dark path of our personality. All our aspects of self,
unacceptable thoughts become part of the shadow (counterpart of
The teacher: (wise old man): embodiment of knowledge and
wisdom. Foretell the future, mentor or guide to the hero.
Mother: (earth mother): real maternal figures tend to be filtered in
to archetype of mother. Embodiment of caregiving and fertility.
Anima: archetype of the other gender, man’s internalized image of
femininity based on real experience with women
Animus; archetype of the other gender, woman’s internalized image
of masculinity based on real experience with men.
Individuation: process where ego is harmonized, balanced and integrated with the
personal and collective aspects of the unconscious.
o Innate striving for individuation is the transcendent function. TEXTBOOK:
Freud believed human behavior and experience are due to forces which we have
very little control and which we are generally unaware.
Main themes are sexuality and aggression.
Oedipus complex: fundamental story for making sense of any life from a Freudian
o In the phallic stage, boys seek to possess and conquer in a powerful and
erotic manner a primal feminine love object that exists in their fantasies .
o Powerful masculine adversary, causing castrating anxiety.
Fear of losing love object and harboring thoughts to kill father.
o Identifies with father and vicariously lives through father
o Object choice: the desire to have the other in a powerful and sensual
manner; investing the libido in that person
Woman undergo penis envy. Penis lacking symbolizes lack of power.
o Having unconscious affection to strong male figure, which is later replaced
with identification with mother.
o May last a long time in many girls because it only gets partially resolved
o Women develop weaker and less independent superegos
Superego is the result of an accomplished Oedipus complex.
Neurotic symptoms are symbolic manifestations of unconscious fears, desires,
conflicts and mysteries
Free association: a standard procedure in psychoanalysis that involves the
patient’s letting his/her mind wander in response to a stimulus and reporting all
thoughts (associations) aloud to the therapist as they occur
Reversal of affect – a pleasurable emotion that is in some sense threatening is
replaced by an unpleasurable one that is less threatening
Transference: redirection of feelings and desires , especially those from childhood,
toward a new object
Countertransference: redirection of a therapist’s feelings toward the patient
Principles of Interpretation
Text and treaty:
o For Freud, human behavior is like a text; must focus on the metaphor of the
o There is no single, complete interpretation of anything; no single answer
o Treaty: a compromise among conflicting forces
o much of what we say, do and experience is a product of compromise among
internal conflicting forces
Manifest level: everything we consciously know and see; straightforward and
Latent level: that which is hidden in the unconscious and must be discovered
o Overdetermination: the Freudian idea that all behavior is caused by many
different, unconscious and conflicting factors
o Dream analysis: the process of moving from the manifest to the latent
content (using free association)
o Dream work: process of spontaneous and unconscious process of
synthesizing (latent -> manifest)
Methods that dream work employ to disguise the meanings of dreams: o Condensation: the dreamer compresses various latent elements into a
single manifest image or theme
o Displacement: a shift of emphasis in a dream from an important but
potentially threatening source to a trivial but safer one; one displaces a
powerful emotion from its intended object to a substitute
o Symbolism: the dreamer conjures up concrete images and actions that
convey hidden but common meanings
o Secondary revision: the dreamer unconsciously smooth's over the dream’s
rough spots, fills in gaps, clears ambiguities and edits the dream so it is
more-or-less coherent (the smooth narrative form is recalled as the
manifest content of the dream)
All neurotic symptoms (phobias, obsessions, compulsions, etc.) can be interpreted
as over determined texts or treaties with disguised meanings at several levels
Slips of the tongue may include forgetting names, mistakes in reading and writing
and everyday errors in simple actions that can be interpreted as indicators of
Creative deceit: all of our behavior is meaningful but we unconsciously deceive
ourselves and others so that we and they do not know what the behavior means
Jungian Approach: Myth and Symbol
Jung believed humans are motivated by a spectacular pantheon of unconscious
forces and factors which are the result of our common evolutionary heritage
Collective unconscious: storehouse of archaic remains from humankind’s
- inherited racial memory
Archetypes: universal patterns or predispositions that structure how all humans
consciously and unconsciously adapt to their world (inherited but flexible templates
o Mother: a universal thought-form coded in stories, legends, art, ritual
customs and fantasy around the world; embodiment of caregiving and
Human infant has an unconscious prototype of what mother
o Anima: unconscious template of femininity in men
o Animus: hidden masculine side of women
o Shadow: embodiment of unacceptable, animalistic desires and impulses;
the dark half of personality
o Each archetype is like a character in a life story
Jung viewed personality development as a lifelong enterprise; saw possibilities for
dramatic personality transformation across the human lifespan
During childhood, certain components of the personality become established as
separate entities (walking, talking, etc.)
Believed the most important developmental period is during midlife, around 40
- religion may become salient at this time; the adult strives to find spiritual
harmony, balance and the full expression of the self
Individuation: process of self-development; involves full development of all aspects
of the personality (conscious and unconscious) Mandala: the mature self reconciles all opposites within a psychological circle of
unity; symbol of self-unity and integrity achieved through the lifelong adventure for
Jung portrayed dreams as symbols of the striving for balance in personality, as
expressions of universal myths and anticipations of life problems in the future
o Symbol: term or name that may be familiar in daily life yet that possesses
specific connotations in addition to its conventional meaning
o Jung argued that one should pay close attention to the form and content of
the manifest dream, not the latent
o He believed that dreams seek to restore balance and harmony and not to
fulfill hidden wishes
o Also believed that dreams may sometimes predict future happenings by
projection into the future from current unconscious trends
Adler: Beginnings and Endings
Adler’s siblings position (2 son) and rivalry in the family are major themes of his
theory of personality development and identified strongly with the working classes
Adler suggests that personality is shaped by learning in a social environment
Humans are fascinated with beginnings and we want to know where we came from
Style of life: the persons unique mode of adjustment to life, including the person’s
self-selected goals and means of achieving them (based on earliest memories)
People who described early memories in which they actively mastered the
environment, punishment was contingent on their own behavior and caused their
own interpersonal difficulties to have control over their worlds
Will to power: a prime motive for human behavior was striving to be aggressive
Organ inferiorities: any feeling of weakness that arises from a sense of
incompletion or imperfection in any sphere of life
Striving for superiority: universal, innate tendency as the great upward drive of
human behavior and experience
o Social interest: the innate sense of kinship with all humanity
o A well-adjusted person strives for superiority and wholeness in his
environment while expressing a true love for and communion with other
o People with strong social interest score higher on measures of
psychological adjustment and report fewer negative results of stress in
Persons understand their lives in terms of final goals and they organize their
behavior and experience accordingly
Fictional Finalism: what each of us perceives to be the final goal of our lives is a
fiction that we create to give our lives direction and purpose
According to Adler, the individual’s life is a patterned psychosocial narrative that
integrates past, present and future, with beginnings, middles and endings; people
strive for narrative unity and purpose as their lives evolve over time
Lives as Texts
Root Metaphor: a basic analogy for understand the world; narratives can serve as
root metaphors for contemporary psychology (dominant metaphor in Western
civilization is mechanism; the basic analogy of the machine) Stories suggest many different things about the storyteller, as if the storyteller
were speaking in different voices
Hermans envisions the person as a multivoiced storyteller whose identity is
expressed through dialogue
o Valuation: anything that a person finds to be of importance when thinking
about his life situation; each valuation is a unit of meaning in the person’s
o Agentic S-Motives: concern self-strivings for superiority, power and c