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Chapter 11&12

PSYB30 Lecture 11 Chapter 11 & 12 Notes.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Sigmund Freud:  Provided first and possibly only theory of personality.  Structure (id, ego and super ego)  Dynamics (conscious vs. unconscious)  Development (oral – anal – phallic- latency – genital.)  Freud introduced the talking cure (psychotherapy) o Many of his ideas are still used today. o He believed the early childhood is important, the internal conflicts and anxieties and ego defenses.  Freud believed that everything comes to sex and aggression (libido)  Defense mechanisms defend us against anxiety.  Freud text and subtext: o Manifest content, text: the surface and conscious level of experience. For instance the dream you appear having. o Latent content: subtext: the hidden and unconscious level of experience. The underlying meaning of the dream.  Behavior is not only determined but over determined, so many elements that determine the behavior. o All the factors compete. o Behavior is like a treaty, or compromise among conflicting forces o Compromises include: dreams, neurotic symptoms and parapaxes (slips of the tongue).  Dream work: movement of latent to manifest level. o Process is spontaneous and unconscious process. o Symbolic representation: conversion of abstract wishes and urges into concrete ones.  Things symbolize something else. o Condensation/compression: compression of multiple latent msgs into one theme. o Displacement: shift on emphasis of important threatening source by a safer one o Secondary revision: making all scattered dream elements into a smooth continuity.  Dream analysis: o Movement of manifest to latent level. o Attempt to discern latent intrapsychic conflict via  Free association: say whatever comes to mind about the dream  Interpretation: analysts interpret the dream, best guess.  Resistance: When the latent conflict comes up, resistance will come up to fight back against it.  Insight: if resistance is surpassed, the dreamer will understand oneself.  Same insight must occur repeatedly for it to stick (working through). Alfred Adler:  inferiority complex:  He looked at his own struggles of inferiority to study.  All human behaviors are linked to deep rooted feelings of inferiority.  Organ inferiority: o Idea that every person will succumb to disease to whichever organ that is least developed and generally inferior. o Principle of equilibrium: inferior organs compensate for their own defects, potentially overcompensating and being stronger.  Masculine protest: o Psychology that comes with organ inferiority. o Where we have organ inferiority, we also have feelings of inferiority. o We strive to compensate to feel competent, autonomous and superior due to our inferiority,  Striving for superiority: o Feeling of inferiority with comparing themselves to peers, feelings of belittling. o People make fictional goals of where they want to be, from where they are now.  Safeguarding strategies: o Tension between inferiority and superiority. ( human universal) o Rationalizing strategies: using one’s own symptoms as reasons or excuses to escape life’s demands o Aggressive strategies: devaluing others in comparison to oneself, blaming others for ones inferiority, or blaming others to get sympathy or attraction, o Distancing strategies: avoiding participation in life to avoid challenging situations where there is risk of failure.  Earliest memories/style of life: o Style of life: our own way of interpreting our own inferiority and way of overcoming this feeling. o Earliest memories: not always factual or correct but has significant perceived meaning. Carl Jung:  Freud’s right hand man.  Believed in introversion (orientation towards self, slightly on the defensive, where one is orientated away from external) and extraversion (orientation towards environment, outgoing, candid and accommodating nature).  Four functions: o Sensation tells you something, sum total of facts. o Thinking: what something is o Feeling: the worth of something o Intuition: where something came from and going to.  Structure of psyche: o Believed like Freud that there is a conscious part, the conscious ego. o Personal unconscious, composite of preconscious and unconscious mind. Thoughts, feeling and memories that are part of long term memory, and those that are repressed as to not threaten the ego. o Collective unconscious: inherited ancestral memory. Deeper than personal unconscious, it is not personal, impersonal/transpersonal. Not unique to you. Common to us all (human beings) archetypes is what is in our collective unconscious, patterns/templates, how we structure our events.  The hero: finest expression of human symbol making. Modest or humble birth, early signs of power, rapid rise to prominence, fall through betrayal or heroic sacrifice. Triumphant struggle against evil.  The shadow: dark path of our personality. All our aspects of self, unacceptable thoughts become part of the shadow (counterpart of the hero).  The teacher: (wise old man): embodiment of knowledge and wisdom. Foretell the future, mentor or guide to the hero.  Mother: (earth mother): real maternal figures tend to be filtered in to archetype of mother. Embodiment of caregiving and fertility.  Anima: archetype of the other gender, man’s internalized image of femininity based on real experience with women  Animus; archetype of the other gender, woman’s internalized image of masculinity based on real experience with men.  Individuation: process where ego is harmonized, balanced and integrated with the personal and collective aspects of the unconscious. o Innate striving for individuation is the transcendent function. TEXTBOOK: Freudian interpretation:  Freud believed human behavior and experience are due to forces which we have very little control and which we are generally unaware.  Main themes are sexuality and aggression.  Oedipus complex: fundamental story for making sense of any life from a Freudian standpoint. o In the phallic stage, boys seek to possess and conquer in a powerful and erotic manner a primal feminine love object that exists in their fantasies . o Powerful masculine adversary, causing castrating anxiety.  Fear of losing love object and harboring thoughts to kill father. o Identifies with father and vicariously lives through father o Object choice: the desire to have the other in a powerful and sensual manner; investing the libido in that person  Woman undergo penis envy. Penis lacking symbolizes lack of power. o Having unconscious affection to strong male figure, which is later replaced with identification with mother. o May last a long time in many girls because it only gets partially resolved o Women develop weaker and less independent superegos  Superego is the result of an accomplished Oedipus complex.  Neurotic symptoms are symbolic manifestations of unconscious fears, desires, conflicts and mysteries  Free association: a standard procedure in psychoanalysis that involves the patient’s letting his/her mind wander in response to a stimulus and reporting all thoughts (associations) aloud to the therapist as they occur  Reversal of affect – a pleasurable emotion that is in some sense threatening is replaced by an unpleasurable one that is less threatening  Transference: redirection of feelings and desires , especially those from childhood, toward a new object  Countertransference: redirection of a therapist’s feelings toward the patient Principles of Interpretation  Text and treaty: o For Freud, human behavior is like a text; must focus on the metaphor of the text o There is no single, complete interpretation of anything; no single answer o Treaty: a compromise among conflicting forces o much of what we say, do and experience is a product of compromise among internal conflicting forces  Manifest level: everything we consciously know and see; straightforward and concise  Latent level: that which is hidden in the unconscious and must be discovered o Overdetermination: the Freudian idea that all behavior is caused by many different, unconscious and conflicting factors o Dream analysis: the process of moving from the manifest to the latent content (using free association) o Dream work: process of spontaneous and unconscious process of synthesizing (latent -> manifest)  Methods that dream work employ to disguise the meanings of dreams: o Condensation: the dreamer compresses various latent elements into a single manifest image or theme o Displacement: a shift of emphasis in a dream from an important but potentially threatening source to a trivial but safer one; one displaces a powerful emotion from its intended object to a substitute o Symbolism: the dreamer conjures up concrete images and actions that convey hidden but common meanings o Secondary revision: the dreamer unconsciously smooth's over the dream’s rough spots, fills in gaps, clears ambiguities and edits the dream so it is more-or-less coherent (the smooth narrative form is recalled as the manifest content of the dream)  All neurotic symptoms (phobias, obsessions, compulsions, etc.) can be interpreted as over determined texts or treaties with disguised meanings at several levels  Slips of the tongue may include forgetting names, mistakes in reading and writing and everyday errors in simple actions that can be interpreted as indicators of unconscious conflicts  Creative deceit: all of our behavior is meaningful but we unconsciously deceive ourselves and others so that we and they do not know what the behavior means Jungian Approach: Myth and Symbol  Jung believed humans are motivated by a spectacular pantheon of unconscious forces and factors which are the result of our common evolutionary heritage  Collective unconscious: storehouse of archaic remains from humankind’s evolutionary past - inherited racial memory  Archetypes: universal patterns or predispositions that structure how all humans consciously and unconsciously adapt to their world (inherited but flexible templates for experience): o Mother: a universal thought-form coded in stories, legends, art, ritual customs and fantasy around the world; embodiment of caregiving and fertility  Human infant has an unconscious prototype of what mother is o Anima: unconscious template of femininity in men o Animus: hidden masculine side of women o Shadow: embodiment of unacceptable, animalistic desires and impulses; the dark half of personality o Each archetype is like a character in a life story  Jung viewed personality development as a lifelong enterprise; saw possibilities for dramatic personality transformation across the human lifespan  During childhood, certain components of the personality become established as separate entities (walking, talking, etc.)  Believed the most important developmental period is during midlife, around 40 - religion may become salient at this time; the adult strives to find spiritual harmony, balance and the full expression of the self  Individuation: process of self-development; involves full development of all aspects of the personality (conscious and unconscious)  Mandala: the mature self reconciles all opposites within a psychological circle of unity; symbol of self-unity and integrity achieved through the lifelong adventure for individuation  Jung portrayed dreams as symbols of the striving for balance in personality, as expressions of universal myths and anticipations of life problems in the future o Symbol: term or name that may be familiar in daily life yet that possesses specific connotations in addition to its conventional meaning o Jung argued that one should pay close attention to the form and content of the manifest dream, not the latent o He believed that dreams seek to restore balance and harmony and not to fulfill hidden wishes o Also believed that dreams may sometimes predict future happenings by projection into the future from current unconscious trends Adler: Beginnings and Endings  Adler’s siblings position (2 son) and rivalry in the family are major themes of his theory of personality development and identified strongly with the working classes  Adler suggests that personality is shaped by learning in a social environment  Humans are fascinated with beginnings and we want to know where we came from  Style of life: the persons unique mode of adjustment to life, including the person’s self-selected goals and means of achieving them (based on earliest memories)  People who described early memories in which they actively mastered the environment, punishment was contingent on their own behavior and caused their own interpersonal difficulties to have control over their worlds  Will to power: a prime motive for human behavior was striving to be aggressive  Organ inferiorities: any feeling of weakness that arises from a sense of incompletion or imperfection in any sphere of life  Striving for superiority: universal, innate tendency as the great upward drive of human behavior and experience o Social interest: the innate sense of kinship with all humanity o A well-adjusted person strives for superiority and wholeness in his environment while expressing a true love for and communion with other people o People with strong social interest score higher on measures of psychological adjustment and report fewer negative results of stress in their lives  Persons understand their lives in terms of final goals and they organize their behavior and experience accordingly  Fictional Finalism: what each of us perceives to be the final goal of our lives is a fiction that we create to give our lives direction and purpose  According to Adler, the individual’s life is a patterned psychosocial narrative that integrates past, present and future, with beginnings, middles and endings; people strive for narrative unity and purpose as their lives evolve over time Lives as Texts  Root Metaphor: a basic analogy for understand the world; narratives can serve as root metaphors for contemporary psychology (dominant metaphor in Western civilization is mechanism; the basic analogy of the machine)  Stories suggest many different things about the storyteller, as if the storyteller were speaking in different voices  Hermans envisions the person as a multivoiced storyteller whose identity is expressed through dialogue o Valuation: anything that a person finds to be of importance when thinking about his life situation; each valuation is a unit of meaning in the person’s life o Agentic S-Motives: concern self-strivings for superiority, power and c
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