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Chapter 7

PSYB30 Chapter 7_Textbook Notes.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 7 Motives and Goals: What do we want in life? The Psychoanalytic View th Most influential psychologist of 20 century => Sigmund Freud - emphasis on psychoanalysis Heart of psychoanalytic view of personality is Freud’s theory of motivation. 4 propositions: 1. Determinism - everything is predetermined - we are not the masters of our fate 2. Drive - these forces live within us and can be traced back to drives or instincts - drives for sexuality and aggression 3. Conflict - the forces that determine our behaviour and experience are in conflict with one another  this causes anxiety - we cannot avoid conflict and anxiety - we are destined to be miserable 4. The unconscious - the things that cause anxiety in our lives is in our unconscious - we have no control over our lives Freud believed sexuality and aggression serve as the primal energy sources for psychological life. - saw the mind as machine that used energy drawn from biological instincts: 1. Sexuality and all other life instincts  EROS 2. Aggression and all other death instincts  THANATOS - our instincts get played out in fantasies and dreams and get expressed in very subtle ways of everyday life The Unconscious - people cannot know the real reasons for what they do - Freud believed (b/c of his earliest clinical cases) that the neurotic symptoms stemmed from personal conflicts and fantasies, often sexual and aggressive, and were pushed out of consciousness - ex. Negative life experiences may no longer be consciously remembered but are still in the unconscious and cause anxiety, dread, etc. Freud’s topographical model of human functioning: - Conscious - everything a person is currently aware of - Preconscious - material the person is not currently aware of but could readily enter awareness if the person wants to retrieve the material - Unconscious – cannot be readily retrieved - memories that have been repressed - a repository for ideas, images, urges, feelings associated with pain, fear, guilt, etc. - things in our unconscious affect our behaviour - may be expressed in disguised or symbolic form ( neurotic symptoms, dreams, fantasies, etc.) Repression and Repressors - our minds have evolved to take in highly familiar and routine information in an effortless and automatic way to free up conscious and explicit mental processes - in a study done by Ap Diijksterhuis : students were shown different apartments in a short amount of time - one was clearly better than the others - after given the information about the apartments: - one group of students was given 3 minutes to think the decision over while the other was distracted for 3 minutes before making their decision  the group that was distracted chose the better apartment - repression is an inescapable fact of life - everyone represses to protect themselves from psychological harm - repressors – persons who experience little anxiety on a conscious level and adopt a highly defensive approach to life - in different studies, it was found that repressors tend to remember fewer negative memories of their child hood and remember more emotional experiences than other people - repressors also did not consciously perceive the drive-related stimuli as threatening; physiological measures showed otherwise - Repressors simplify negative memories to a single dominant feeling whereas nonrepressors describe their negative memories in more complex terms - Sometimes repression is a good thing; it may lead to resilience  resilience is the ability to overcome different obstacles in life and to thrive amidst adversity - in a longitudinal study, Bonanno and colleagues talked to bereaved spouses and parents after their loss and then 18 months later - found that the bereaved individuals who exhibited a repressive coping style at the first session showed better physical health and better psychological adjustment - nonrepressors showed poorer health and worst adjustment The Ego’s Defenses Id – most primitive - home of instinctual impulsesof sex and aggression - chaotic; knows no inhibitions - dictated by the pleasure principle; pleasure derives from the reduction of tension in satisfying of impulses - driving force behind primary process thinking – irrational thinking we associate with dreaming Ego -works to mediate between the blind demands of its master and the constraints imposed by logic - works on reality principle: enables individual to suspend immediate gratification until either an appropriate object or environmental condition arises that will satisfy the instinct - secondary process thinking: conscious, deliberate and geared toward solving problems in a rational and realistic manner - people cope through defence mechanisms  unconscious strategy of the ego that distorts reality in order to lessen anxiety - Superego - primitive internalized representation of the norms and values of society as acquired through identification with the parents - tells person they can’t do things - strict and inflexible - reality of the outside world produce realistic anxiety - id threatens ego  neurotic anxiety - superego threatening ego  moral anxiety - guilt, regret, etc Defence mechanisms - Phebe Cramer did a study on defence mechanisms; immature defence mechanisms show up earlier in life and more mature ones show up later - denial = most primitive - person refuses to acknowledge an event that causes anxiety - projection - attributes unacceptable internal states and qualities onto other ex. Someone that can’t accept they are gay will call others gay - identification - person forms enduring mental representation of significant others - replicate behaviour of others as a means of coping - in one of Cramer’s studies, she showed children pictures and told them to write stories  found that children at younger ages showed denial The Humanistic View - from humanistic perspective, the supreme motivator is the striving to actualize and perfect the self Carl Rogers’s Theory client-centered therapy – emphasizes on therapist’s warmth and sincerity, empathy, etc - believed the person must be understood from the perspective of his or her “phenomenal field”  entire panorama of a person’s experience, the person’s subjective apprehension of reality; the individuals overall frame of reference - person who is able to fulfill their potential = fully functioning person - the self has expanded to encompass the lion’s share of the phenomenal field - this person operates according to the organismic valuing process - these experiences are viewed as satisfying & are approached - this person is like to have experienced a great deal of unconditional positive regard  means they have been loved and accepted in an uncritical and noncontingent manner - conditional positive regard from others leads to the apprehension of conditions of worth - we come to believe that certain aspects of our experience are worthy and others are not Abraham Maslow’s Psychology of Being - believed humans strive to actualize their inner potential, called it self-actualization - need hierarchy  physiological needs (bottom) safety needs belongingness and love self-actualizatio
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