Emerged in twentieth century as third organizing force.
o First is psychoanalysis (ego etc.) which is a dark view and shows that
most of what we do is governed by unconscious forces that dark libido
urges that characterize our behavior, most of our good things are top
of dark human nature
o Second is behaviorist: neutral view of human nature. We aren’t evil,
dark, simply product of our learning history.
Humanistic is third, sometimes connected with existentialism. More
optimistic view. Humans are essentially good. Intrinsically on positive
trajectory, come into world with potential and designed to realize them. The
environment affects our development toward potential. Rational beings,
conscious intention and purpose.
Originator of humanism to psychotherapy (CARL ROGERS)
o To know how to help others, believed we must know how things go
o Believed that inside each of us is true self, who we are to become.
Inside of us always. Existential journey.
o Mechanism that informs us we are making growth good choices.
Organismic valuing process (voice inside our heads) tells us if we are
doing something stupid.
o Fully functioning person:
Need a person to be open to experience (free of need to distort
their experiences, listen attentively and without anxiety)
Need a person to existential living, are not overwhelmed by
regret of choices in past, and choices possible in future. Living
in the present moment.
Need a person who can trust their inner OPV. Trust
o To become a person:
We need positive regard (being loved and needed)
Conditions of worth (some things bring approval while others
disapproval) there are conditions attached to your worth,
something connected to the positive regard.
Together the above two are conditional positive regard where
love is because of something.
o To fix the above:
We need unconditioned positive regard they never received, in
client centered therapy.
Need to show empathic understanding, seeing the world from
the client’s point of view.
Reflective: counselor accurately expresses client’s attitudes
o Hierarchy of basic needs. o All are deficiency motives, lacks, tensions.
o They are all noticed when they are lacked and we are motivated to
o When lower needs are satisfied, we go higher.
o Physiological , safety, belonging love, esteem, self actualization
o Peak experience: intense feeling of joy where the window to
personality transformation is.
People feel integrated, whole, unified, creative, self-confident,
flexible, spontaneous, expressive and innocent.
o Only one of two hundred people are self actualized.
o Most of us never reach that point.
We don’t need to prioritize the needs the way Maslow did. We
may satisfy higher ones than lower ones.
The order may be incorrect.
Deci’s free choice paradigm:
students solve a series of puzzles
control condition: no money prize
experimental: $1 per puzzle solved
results found that those that had no monetary reward, played for longer.
o learning was due to innate reward.
Intrinsically motivated behavior:
occur in absence of external reward
are undertaken out of interest, optimally challenging for the individual
based on psychological needs
various things undermine intrinsic motivation, ranging form competition,
Intrinsically motivated behavior seem to only occur when basic psychological
needs are satisfied.
o Grows by basic psychological needs.
o Need for autonomy (need for choice and ownership for owns
behavior, true self comes out of owns behaviour), competence (sense
of mastery) and relatedness (connected to others) need to all be done
to be intrinsically motivated
Humans need the above 3, having enough of them facilitates
growth and promotes a sense of well being and we languish
without it like plants.
o various growth promoting contextual factors affect the needs for
person to be intrinsically motivated.
Autonomy support: environment can differ in support,
initiation and pressures to perform.
Structure: extent in given environment, when you behave
certain way, a certain outcome is seen
Involvement: those in environment care about you. Internalization:
we can take external things and make it who we are.
External regulation: things we do because we are rewarded or punished for
doing it. External punishment or reward.
Introjection: when something is partially incorporated internalized extrinsic
contingencies. Internal reward or punishment, we do something because we
feel ashamed or hurt by not doing it.
Identification: extrinsic is fully internalized. We do things because it’s
Integrated regulation: highest form of internalization, when we act in accord
fully internalized extrinsic contingencies. We make ourselves revolve around
Feeling of authenticity.
Coming from inside themselves, either who they are or brought into
themselves. Behaviors that are who we are.
We believe we are the authors of those behaviors.
Lag effect: how you feel in last moment is best indicator of how you feel in next
Goal: is a persistent and chronic attempt to bring about an outcome. Recurring
cognitive image that serves as a standard and instigator with respect to behavior
Personal goals bring extremely unlikely events in the future.
Drive our behavior and tell us when we reach end.
Can be abstract to concrete.
Persistent over time and across situations.
Can be conscious or unconscious.
Everyone has different goals but same needs.
Organismic congruence: extent one’s personal goals allow one to meet physiological
needs, or are irrelevant to such needs or are incompatible.
two types of goals: