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Chapter 9

PSYB30 Lecture 9 Chapter 9 Notes.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Erik Homburger/Erikson  Erikson: 8 stages of man, Erik hamburger psychosocial development o Changed Freud’s model of psych sexual of erogenous zones. o Lifelong, not just childhood because people are always changing etc. o Erikson is an outsider, Jewish/protestant, father ditched him. He was wandering artists, psychoanalyst, o Key idea: personality unfolds in predetermined stages that all people must pass through. Each stage gives us a challenge. The challenge must be confronted maybe not succeeded. There is an optimal time to do it. o If we undertake challenges before/after optimal time, we get development failures, cannot be rushed or stalled. o When we beat the challenge, we get a strength called a virtue.  Strength must strike balance between challenges.  Fail is when you look at a challenge at an extreme  Epigenetic principle is basically this, to strike a balance in the challenge between two bad extremes. (too trustful or too distrustful) o Triple bookkeeping: 3 complimentary analyses. Gives comprehensive understanding of person.  Body: sexual and libido urges housed within the body.  Ego: individual’s conscious understanding of the world. Underemphasized in Freudian thinking.  Family and society: family, societal context.  Stages: o Stage 1: primary issue is that of trust. Mothers bond is essential to child (question: how can I be secure?) VIRTUE: HOPE (belief that there is positive outcome at the end).  Too much trust would cause a person to be maladaptive/sensory distortion (too gullible)  Not trustful, malignancy/withdrawal: depression, paranoia, suspicion etc. o Stage 2: toddler (2-3 years): primary issue of autonomy vs. shame doubt. Self mastery stage. New experiences = more chances to embarrass oneself. VIRTUE: WILL (capacity to be determined, own efficacy etc.)  Too autonomous etc., child becomes impulsive. Shameless willfulness. Unmitigated autonomy  Malignancy: compulsion, tend to be self doubting perfectionistic. o Stage 3: preschool (3-6) primary issue of guilt and initiative. Increased sense of purpose and power in the world. VIRTUE: PURPOSE (direction to action)  Too much initiative tends to be ruthless. Unmitigated initiative. Pursuit of ones goals without regards to others.  Too little (malignancy): inhibition, better safe than sorry. Do not take risks or initiatives. o Stage 4: school age (7-12) time period that gives children tools and roles they’ll adopt in later life. Primary issue of industry and inferiority. VIRTUE: COMPETENCE  Maladaptation: too must industry, person is narrow virtuosity. Excellence in a small scope. Children aren’t allowed to be children.  Malignancy: sense of inferiority. o Stage 5: adolescence. Looks at identity and role confusion. Capable of counterfactual thinking, what if. VIRTUE: FIDELITY (loyalty to live and be truthful to societies standards in light of societies imperfection)  Child questions and imagines varying scenarios, explore different alternatives, challenges child viewpoints and investigate alternate viewpoints.  Child then commits to viewpoints, adoption of adult ideology/social role.  Typology (Marseile):  If person explores and commits, they undergo achievement o They tend to make comments that state they have looked at other things and have chosen one viewpoint  If person explores but never commits, they undergo moratorium, constant endless state of exploration. o They tend to be constantly analyzing and looking at things.  If person does not explore but just commits, they undergo foreclosure, adopting what parents believe. o They tend to just agree what others say  If person does not explore or commit, they undergo diffusion, rejected task of identity altogether, o They tend to show indifference with a lot of things  Maladaptation: one becomes fanatical. Intolerance, value yourself and can't tolerate differences to you  Malignancy: repudiation, refusing the challenge of identity. o Stage 6: young adult. Looks upon issue of intimacy and isolation, sharing oneself with others. Capacity to be close with others. VIRTUE: LOVE (capacity to put aside differences)  Eriksonian intimacy: opening up to anything that is alien, foreign or outside of the ego.  Typology (orloski)  Intimate: those that can have close friendships and committed relationships, able to do appropriate emotions  Preintimate: close friends however dating is superficial with complications about commitment.  Stereotyped: superficial about everything.  Isolate: lack of social contact.  Studies by Kahn found that those people who resolve identity issues in young adult life are able to establish marital relationships.  Maladaptation: promiscuity. Tendency to become too intimate too early, too superficially with the wrong people.  Malignancy: exclusion, closing oneself from others. o Stage 7: mature adulthood (30-50) looks at what they will leave behind. Concern for next generation. Generative and stagnation. VIRTUE: CARE (capacity to extend love into the future)  4 types of generativity.  Biological: conception of offspring. Infant is what is left behind  Parental: raising (nurturing) offspring. Family tradition is left behind  Technical: Teaching skills to successors. Apprentice and the skills taken are left behind.  Cultural: preserving the symbol system. The culture and disciple is left behind.  MCADAMS MODEL of generativity: believed that were pushed by cultural demand to be generative.  Cultural demand: developmental expectations, we are expected to contribute to next generation.  We also have inner desire: the child portrays who we are (symbolic immortality) and Erikson’s need to be needed  Cognition: concern for the next generation. Belief in the species (we believe our species is good and worth investing into). Commitment: taking responsibility for  Action:  Mcadams made experiment that related to generative. o Generative concern: rise to age 37-42 and then declines. o Generative commitment: continually increases, highest for old age. o Generative Action: increases to age 37-42 then declines.  Maladaptation: overextension (concerns of future at expense of the present) overly concerned about the future and neglectful of the present.
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