Erikson: 8 stages of man, Erik hamburger psychosocial development
o Changed Freud’s model of psych sexual of erogenous zones.
o Lifelong, not just childhood because people are always changing etc.
o Erikson is an outsider, Jewish/protestant, father ditched him. He was
wandering artists, psychoanalyst,
o Key idea: personality unfolds in predetermined stages that all people
must pass through. Each stage gives us a challenge. The challenge
must be confronted maybe not succeeded. There is an optimal time to
o If we undertake challenges before/after optimal time, we get
development failures, cannot be rushed or stalled.
o When we beat the challenge, we get a strength called a virtue.
Strength must strike balance between challenges.
Fail is when you look at a challenge at an extreme
Epigenetic principle is basically this, to strike a balance in the
challenge between two bad extremes. (too trustful or too
o Triple bookkeeping: 3 complimentary analyses. Gives comprehensive
understanding of person.
Body: sexual and libido urges housed within the body.
Ego: individual’s conscious understanding of the world.
Underemphasized in Freudian thinking.
Family and society: family, societal context.
o Stage 1: primary issue is that of trust. Mothers bond is essential to
child (question: how can I be secure?) VIRTUE: HOPE (belief that
there is positive outcome at the end).
Too much trust would cause a person to be
maladaptive/sensory distortion (too gullible)
Not trustful, malignancy/withdrawal: depression, paranoia,
o Stage 2: toddler (2-3 years): primary issue of autonomy vs. shame
doubt. Self mastery stage. New experiences = more chances to
embarrass oneself. VIRTUE: WILL (capacity to be determined, own
Too autonomous etc., child becomes impulsive. Shameless
willfulness. Unmitigated autonomy
Malignancy: compulsion, tend to be self doubting
o Stage 3: preschool (3-6) primary issue of guilt and initiative. Increased
sense of purpose and power in the world. VIRTUE: PURPOSE
(direction to action)
Too much initiative tends to be ruthless. Unmitigated initiative.
Pursuit of ones goals without regards to others. Too little (malignancy): inhibition, better safe than sorry. Do
not take risks or initiatives.
o Stage 4: school age (7-12) time period that gives children tools and
roles they’ll adopt in later life. Primary issue of industry and
inferiority. VIRTUE: COMPETENCE
Maladaptation: too must industry, person is narrow virtuosity.
Excellence in a small scope. Children aren’t allowed to be
Malignancy: sense of inferiority.
o Stage 5: adolescence. Looks at identity and role confusion. Capable of
counterfactual thinking, what if. VIRTUE: FIDELITY (loyalty to live and
be truthful to societies standards in light of societies imperfection)
Child questions and imagines varying scenarios, explore
different alternatives, challenges child viewpoints and
investigate alternate viewpoints.
Child then commits to viewpoints, adoption of adult
If person explores and commits, they undergo
o They tend to make comments that state they
have looked at other things and have chosen one
If person explores but never commits, they undergo
moratorium, constant endless state of exploration.
o They tend to be constantly analyzing and looking
If person does not explore but just commits, they
undergo foreclosure, adopting what parents believe.
o They tend to just agree what others say
If person does not explore or commit, they undergo
diffusion, rejected task of identity altogether,
o They tend to show indifference with a lot of
Maladaptation: one becomes fanatical. Intolerance, value
yourself and can't tolerate differences to you
Malignancy: repudiation, refusing the challenge of identity.
o Stage 6: young adult. Looks upon issue of intimacy and isolation,
sharing oneself with others. Capacity to be close with others. VIRTUE:
LOVE (capacity to put aside differences)
Eriksonian intimacy: opening up to anything that is alien,
foreign or outside of the ego.
Typology (orloski) Intimate: those that can have close friendships and
committed relationships, able to do appropriate
Preintimate: close friends however dating is superficial
with complications about commitment.
Stereotyped: superficial about everything.
Isolate: lack of social contact.
Studies by Kahn found that those people who resolve identity
issues in young adult life are able to establish marital
Maladaptation: promiscuity. Tendency to become too intimate
too early, too superficially with the wrong people.
Malignancy: exclusion, closing oneself from others.
o Stage 7: mature adulthood (30-50) looks at what they will leave
behind. Concern for next generation. Generative and stagnation.
VIRTUE: CARE (capacity to extend love into the future)
4 types of generativity.
Biological: conception of offspring. Infant is what is left
Parental: raising (nurturing) offspring. Family tradition
is left behind
Technical: Teaching skills to successors. Apprentice and
the skills taken are left behind.
Cultural: preserving the symbol system. The culture and
disciple is left behind.
MCADAMS MODEL of generativity: believed that were pushed
by cultural demand to be generative.
Cultural demand: developmental expectations, we are
expected to contribute to next generation.
We also have inner desire: the child portrays who we
are (symbolic immortality) and Erikson’s need to be
Cognition: concern for the next generation. Belief in the
species (we believe our species is good and worth
investing into). Commitment: taking responsibility for
Mcadams made experiment that related to generative.
o Generative concern: rise to age 37-42 and then
o Generative commitment: continually increases,
highest for old age.
o Generative Action: increases to age 37-42 then
declines. Maladaptation: overextension (concerns of future at expense of
the present) overly concerned about the future and neglectful
of the present.