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Psychology (9,685)
PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 1&2

Chapter 1&2.docx

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Francisco Villegas

Chapter 1 Personality psychology; scientific study of what makes us who we are/study of individual differences/a whole is greater than the sum of its parts Building Blocks of Personality: 1. Traits; a person’s typical way of thinking, feeling and acting in various situations at different times/consistent across our lives 2. Genetics; the study of how genes and environment affect personality and behaviour/nature and nurture work together to make us who we are 3. Neuroscience; the study of how our brain and nervous system affect personality and behaviour through the study of bodily responses, brain structure, brain activity and biochemical activity 4. Self And Identity; encompasses our own sense of who we are including our self-concept, self- esteem and social identity a. Sense of who we are= self-concept b. Our opinion about who we are=self-esteem c. How we present ourselves to others=social identity 5. Intrapsychic Foundations Of Personality; with a sense of self, we can look within ourselves to our own conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings that also makes up our personality a. Freud discovered that physical disorders may have psychological causes/personality could be changed 6. Regulation/Motivation; concerned with how people adjust their responses to the environment consciously or unconsciously a. Self-Determination Theory; when people feel free to choose, are competent at what they do, and are connected to people around them they will be motivated and self- directed for task at hand. 7. Cognitive Foundations; describes how people perceive/think about information about themselves and the world 8. Integration; combine the building blocks of personality into a whole person  Psychological Research relies on the scientific method in which describes how to make and test observations about the world in order to draw conclusions while minimizing error or bias o Starts with identification of basic facts about the world o Scientists build theories o Make/test predictions using controlled methods o Results are made public  Observational study; observe what people do to understand a certain phenomena  Hypothesis; an educated guess to explain findings  Personality Questionnaires; test in which people answer questions about themselves that identify certain aspects of their personality  Correlation Coefficient (signified by R=Relationship) o if two variables increase/decrease at the same time they are positively related o if one decreases while the other increases they are negatively related o correlation does not equal causation  Neuroticism; personality trait describes how anxious/vulnerable to negative emotions a person is Research Methods; 1. Researchers divide which variables they want to study 2. Assign two conditions which vary per variable a. Experimental condition; participants experience one treatment b. Control condition; participants experience different/no treatment 3. Use random assignment to assign to either condition a. Experimental control; all aspects of experiment are the same except that being studied b. True experiment; allows researcher to conclude that what he manipulated caused a difference in outcome measured Respect for persons; includes allowing people to choose for themselves whether they wish to participate or not by giving their consent after being told about procedures/risks (informed consent) Principle of beneficence; researches should do no harm to participants Principle of justice; the benefits/burdens of research must be shared equally among participants Common Rule Mandates that institutes that conduct research must maintain an institutional review board to review all research to ensure that it upholds these standards Chapter 2  Behavioral residue; what people leave behind in an environment they lived in/a hint of personality in somebody’s room  Traits=Descriptors of Personality o Are measured over continuum-from high to low o
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