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Chapter 1-3

[PSYB30] Chapter 1-3 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Ch.1 : Understanding the Building Blocks of Personality Extroverts: -People who more likely to venture forth in world to meet others Introverts: -Prefer to keep to themselves ■ What is Personality Psychology  Scientific study of what make us who we are, with scientific method of investigation  Study of individuals differences: -Identifying ways in which people are both similar and different -Explaining how they became that way  Identify and study building blocks of make us think and act as we do -Individuals elements make up as a whole personality -Personality is more than a sum of individual’s part The Building Blocks of Personality  Traits, genetics, neuroscience, self & identity etc. Environmental forces: -Including culture, society, and socialization by parents and peers -Social environment impact on personality at multiple levels ➣Traits: Person’s typical way of thinking, feeling, and acting in various situations -Develop from socialization and personal experiences -Consistent across our lives and expressed in many ways ➣Genetics: Study of how gene and environment affect personality and behavior -Every genetic components has an environmental components as well -“Nature and nurture” works together to make us who we are - Inherit potentialities expression depends on environment ➣Neuroscience: Study of how brain and nervous system affect personality and behavior though study of bodily responses, brain structure/activity. -Suggested extroversion, neuroticism and impulsivity are related to physiological and neurological differences presented at birth -Environment and personal experiences still impact how characteristics develop ➣Self & Identity: Encompasses own sense of who we are including self- concept, self esteem and social identity. -Being human = Ability to reflect on ourselves -Dolphins and chimpanzees share capacity of self-reflection with human ➣Intrapsychic Foundation of Personality: - Look within ourselves (intra) to our own conscious and unconscious thought and feelings (psychic) that make up our personality - Sigmund Freud: -Establish entire theory about unconscious motivations and defenses -Believed people were controlled by unconscious forces -Claimed unconsciousness imprint on our adult personalities -One of the first claimed that personality could be changed ➣Regulation and Motivation: Self- Determination Theory: -Suggest people able to regulate themselves consciously and unconsciously -Concern with how people adjust their responses to environment, both consciously and unconsciously Self-Determination Theory: -People are competent at what they do when they feel free to choose -Be motivated and self-directed for task at hand ➣Cognitive Foundation: -Describes how people perceive and think about information about themselves and world -People are differ in how they process information -e.g. causes and impacts of event / expectation for the future events -e.g. locus of control / learned helplessness / optimism-pessimism Putting it all together: Integration Integration: Combine the building blocks of personality into a whole person ”Whole is greater than mere sum of the part” in personality -Not enough to understand a person by knowing all the building blocks -Different blocks or characteristics interact to each other and form a greater picture Understand personality by see how blocks build on each other and interact ■ How Do Psychologists Study Personality  Study personality by doing research : -Formulate and test question about human behaviors -Designate accurate methods to answer questions -To test competing explanations against one another beyond their findings -Add collective knowledge about a given phenomenon i) The Scientific Method Empiricism: Using direct experience to draw conclusion about the world Psychological research relies on scientific method: 1) Make and test observation on an experimental object in order to draw conclusion while minimizing error or bias - Start with identification of basic facts about the world - Build theories using collection of facts 2) Make prediction and test prediction based on their theories using controlled methods 3) Make result public by publishing in journals or on internet -To seek out independent verification from other researchers ii) Observational Studies and Personality Questionnaires  Method they use depend on kind of question the researchers are asking Observational Study: They observe what people do to understand certain phenomenon Hypothesis: Explain their findings by making educational guess Personality questionnaires: Test in which people answer questions about themselves which identify certain aspect of their personalities (e.g. talkative / outgoing / sociable / certain traits) iii) Correctional and Experimental Designs Analyzing qualitative data with different methods Correlational studies: Measure 2 variables to see how they relate, without manipulating them Commonly used when true experiment is not possible Correction coefficient: -Indicated by symbol r -Measure the co-relation between 2 variables, either positive or negative depending on the type of relationship between 2 variables in question i) Positive correlated: Both 2 variables increases / decreases at the same time ii) Negative correlated: One of the variables increases, another variable decreases  Three sizes of correlations: Size of correlation =/= if relationship significant or not Small: 0.0 – 0.3 (or -ve) Medium: 0.3 – 0.5 (or -ve) Large: 0.5 – 0.9 (or -ve) 3 possible explanation for related variables: i) The first/second variable causes the second/first variable ii) The third variable causes both first and second variables  Correlation =/= Causation, knowing variables similar doesn’t know why they are similar e.g. Measure both personality and behaviours in personality iv) True Experiemnt: Experiment: Place people in controlled situation and observe their responses Researchers design two conditions which differ in variable i) Experimental condition: Participants experience one treatment ii) Control condition: Participants experience different treatment/ no treatment Random assignment: Assign participants to one condition / the other Every participant has an equal chance of experience either conditions Experimental control: -All aspects of experiment are the same, except for variable being studied -Experiment participates with random assignment -Able to conclude difference in participates’ responses are due to the manipulated variable True experiment: Allow researchers to conclude what they manipulated caused difference in outcome they measured Independent variable: Variable which researchers manipulated Independent of participates’ responses Dependent variable: Variable/participates’ responses which the researchers measure Effective and Ineffective strategies in experiment: -Participates needed to image they are in situation of failed to get into programs -Randomly assign all participates in either effective/ ineffective strategies conditions -Effective strategies condition: Participates instructed to reinterpret their failure Could find something more positive in experience Tried to improve -Ineffective strategies condition: Instructed to focus on how upset they were Admit to try not dealing thing and just give up Reported more negative emotion -Discovered interaction between condition and Neuroticism -Discovered interaction between coping strategy and neuroticism -Effective strategies only effective for people low in neuroticism -People felt less negative emotion than people used ineffective strategies -Effect of strategy depends on personality -effect of positive thinking depends on personality -People high Neuroticism reported more negative emotion than people low in Neuroticism Neuroticism: Personality traits which describes how anxious and vulnerable to negative emotion Levels: or groups within each independent variable ■ Types of Data and Personality Assessment  Self-report data: Questionnaires or interview Observation data: observation from friends or trained observers Test data: See how objective behave in controlled situation (e.g. in laboratory) Life data: e.g. how many times does the individual appear on photos Good personality test has to include: - Good reliability, validity, generalizability and response set Researcher must follow ethical principles which sat up by American Psychological Association ➣Then and Now: The Ethics of Research with People -Unethically separate two identical twins purposely from birth -Tuskegee Syphilis study: Impoverished African American sharecroppers were given syphilis And prevent from obtaining treatment -Three principles must be adhered according to Belmont Report: - 1) Respect for person 2)Beneficence 3)Justice -Establishes guidelines researchers must follow for research 1) Respect for person: - Allow people to choose whether wish to participate or not -Protecting vulnerable population (e.g. prisoner or minors) -Giving consent after they being informed about procedure/risk -refer as an Informed consent 2) Beneficence: Researcher should not harm their participants Maximizing possible benefits of research participation 3) Justice: -Suggest benefits and burden of research participant must be shared equitably among potential research population -All participants must be treated fairly and equally -Treatment must available to all, not just to people who can afford it -Common Rule: -Was adopted by all federal agencies -includes National Institute of Health, National Institute of mental health all universities / hospital where research is conducted -Mandates institutions to establish and maintain an institutional review board -To review all research to ensure it uphold its standards -Boards must include researchers, ethicist and community member discussed together and ensure participants rights are protected Ch.2 Personality Traits: A Good Theory Behavioral residue: Physical traces left behind by everyday actions -as hints / cues to individual’s personality -e.g. Collect seashells to reinforce self-views as a nature lover Study of observing 83 college students’ rooms to determine personality: -Made rating on 7-points scale of descriptions applied to occupant’s room -Often very accurate in guessing occupants’ personalities Descriptions of personality are called Traits: -e.g. Charming, anxious, critical, enthusiastic ■ What is a Personality Traits Traits: -Describe person’s typical style of thinking, feeling, and acting in different situation/ time - Are persistent act and reactions over different situation -Temporary states, attitudes, or physical attributes are not personality traits -Are measured over a continuum, in a continuous stretch -e.g. High in talkativeness, more likely to start conversation with strangers Psychologist view traits as hypothetical concepts -Purely descriptive summaries of behaviors, without asking why and where they came from Psychologist also view traits as internal causal properties / a capacity Two ways of studying traits: 1) Idiographic: Through detailed study of single individuals 2) Nomothetic: Through combined study of numerous people Two Approaches to Study of Personality Traits: (By Allport) ➣ Idiographic Approach: -To understand personality of single individual, with all idiosyncrasies and characteristics that make them unique. (e.g. What unique combination of traits best description person’s personality) ➣Nomothetic Approach: -To discover universals, concept that apply to everyone -By identify traits which describes all people/applied to everyone Idiographic: e.g, Practice of medicine, must diagnosis and treat individual patients Nomothetic: e.g. Practice of treatment which based on nomothetic science of biochemistry -Both idiographic and nomothetic overlap to completely understand human personality Esysenck’s Theory  Hypothesized human personality is organized into hierarchy Categorizes human personality from most general level at top, to most specific at bottom -General traits: Universal traits / applicable to other people -Specific traits: More unique to single individuals, specific behaviors Including responses, acts, cognition, or reaction to everyday life -e.g. Same reaction which occurs many times, become a habit Refer as personality trait when certain habits occur overtime Personality type: Certain traits which tend to occur together More lower level of pyramid, more idiosyncratic of our reactions ■ What do we know about Personality from Idiographic Approach ➣ Studying Individual Personalities: Idiographic Approach:  Description which psychologist focuses on understanding specific person -e.g. Person describes himself as stubborn, curious etc. Allport identified 3 different kinds of traits: ➣ Central Traits: Traits which are of major importance in understanding the person ➣Secondary Traits: Traits of lesser importance, less consistently displayed Only close friend might notice from, e.g. shy with new people ➣Cardinal Traits: One-trait personality, Single traits which completely dominate a personality Unusual people which have one and only one trait describes him -e.g. Snow White’s seven little friends ➣Idiographic Approach Applied: Case of Jenny: Was a pseudonym for a woman who wrote detailed correspondence to 2 friends over 10 years Jenny’s personality came out naturally in letters she wrote Allport analyzes Jenny’s personality by applying personality theories ■ What do we know about Personality from Nomothetic Approach ➣ Finding Universals: Nomothetic Approach: 3 Different ways to identify most applicable words to describe personality” 1) Theoretical approach 2) Lexical Approach 3) Measurement Approach Uses statistical techniques, factor analysis to verify basic traits ➣Theoretical Approach: -Proposes theory/ common wisdom about human personality -Devise personality scale to measure Machiavellianism -Carl Jung: -Hypothesized that people differ in how to evaluate information -evaluate either rationally (thinking function) or through emotions - Propose at least 2 types of personality: Feeling and thinking types -Sigmund Freud: Adult personality will be affected if had problem in childhood -e.g. Problem in toilet training ➣Lexical Approach: Identify number of synonyms which describe personality in language Help psychologists identify key term for description -Allport & Odbert: conducted lexical analysis and described 4504 traits ➣Measurement Approach: Discover important aspects of personality and measure - Some operationalized observation within theoretical tradition -some develop questionnaires and measurement techniques, apart from theory -Care more about the accuracy of measurement -Factor analysis: to see if traits cluster together in correlation -Raymond Cattell: Eliminated 4504 traits into 160 by similarities Discovered 16 personality factors through factor analysis Research Methods Illustrated: Factor Analysis Factor Analysis: Statistical technique which mathematically identifies underlying structure among a set of variables Correlation (symbol r) represent strength of relationship between 2 variables -Larger number: Indicate 2 variables are highly related -Sign of r : Indicates 2 variable are either directly (+ve) or indirectly related (-ve) Eigenvalue: Certain amount of variation (or variance) in each factor Factor loading: An estimate of how strongly each question fit into given factor Higher numbers indicate stronger correlation between items Rotating factors to shift combination and weight of questions Name the factor when identify the right numbers STOMP: Short Test of Musical Preferences, by Rentfrow and Gosling Rating how much they like each 14 musical genres Choice may impact the result: choosing question to ask/ determine right number of factor Way of interpreting factor ■Great Nomothetic Search for Universal Principles of Personality Big Five: Identified solution of 5 remarkably similar factors, by building on Cattell’s work Describes personality at high level of abstraction Questionnaire approach: Found popular personality tests all include big 5 factors -Personality Research Form, California Q-set, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Theorized to be universal personality traits, must be rooted in biology Five-factor model: Five factor model of personality based on measurement approach (NEOAC) 1)Neuroticism 2)Extraversion 3)Openness 4)Agreeableness 5) Conscientiousness ➣Three Superfactors: Eysenck Can be measured by Eysenck Personality Questionaire Identified 3 broad dimensions of personality: 1) Psychoticism 2)Extraversion 3)Neuroticism -Form the basis of Eysenck’s PEN model of personality Identified more specific traits: Narrow traits -Associated with each of the 3 factors Studied genetic differences in 3 factors in twin studies, to describe personality in biologically ➣Psychoticism: -Describes how tough minded/antisocial people are -People high in psychoticism tend to be selfish and antisocial -Low in agreeableness, low conscientiousness -Combination of agreeableness & conscientiousness in 5FF -Narrow traits: Aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal etc. ➣Extraversion: -Describes how outgoing people are, both social and physical environments -Extraverts tend to be outgoing and experience many positive feelings -Contrast to introvert: fond of books rather people -Narrow traits: Sociable, lively, active, assertive etc. ➣Neuroticism: -Refer to negative emotionality and emotional reactivity -High in Neuroticism tend to be easily upset, vulnerable to negative emotion -Narrow traits: Shy, moody, anxious, depressed, low self esteem Problem: Some important traits are missing Eysenck believed conceptualizations of traits are invalid: -it includes traits from multiple level of hierarchy -claimed Cattell’s 16 personality factors are at 3 level -traits that identified by 5 factor model were just mixed habits and responses -Getting same 3 superfactors after factor analyzed -Acknowledged that five-factor model overlapped with his theory -Factors of Agreeableness & Conscientiousness were level of habits -Claimed Openness were more of cognitive factor and not part of personality ➣ Five Factors: The Big Five & Five-Factor Model Universal traits of : 1)Neuroticism (Factor IV) 2) Extraversion (Factor I) 3)Openness (Factor V) 4)Agreeableness (Factor II) 5)Conscientiousness (Factor III) Neuroticism: -Negative affectivity and nervousness, Contrast to Emotional Stability -Refer to how well person adjusts to “Slings and arrows of daily life” -Refer to emotionality, psychological distress and reactivity -People who low in Neuroticism =/= High in mental health -Low in Neuroticism: Even-tempered, clam, relaxed High in Neuroticism: Poor coping skills in stressful situations, poorer health Likely to experience burnout and job changes More dependent on cell phones in high impulsiveness NEO-PI-R: -Each of 5 factors made of 6 subscales – Facets -Neuroticism as superfactor. Facets as the narrow traits -e.g. Anxiety, depression, impulsiveness etc. Extraversion: -Describe how on energetically engage with social world, Contrast to introversion -Facets of assertive, talkative, active, warmth, positive and cheerful etc. -optimistic person who shows enthusiasm =/= Low in anxiety / depression -Neuroticism: Related to anxiety and depression -Extraversion: Related to leadership, # of friends/sexual partners Openness: -or refer as “Inquiring Intellect” -Facets of fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas etc (imagination) -Refer to openness to ideas and new things, instead openness to people -Different to Extraversion, like experience but not excitement-seeking -Refer to appreciation of life of mind, not same as intelligence -appreciation of wide range of feelings -e.g. ideas / thought / art and beauty -High in openness = Tend to be imaginative and creative Tend to go further education and to succeed in creative jobs Low in openness = Tend to be conventional, practical Agreeableness: -Refer to quality of interpersonal relations -how much a person feels and get along with others -As a prosocial/ communal orientation to others, contrast to antagonism -Facets of trust, straightforwardness, altruism, social harmony etc. -Low in agreeableness: Self-centeredness, indifference, jealousy etc Risk for cardiovascular disease, interpersonal problem Conscientiousness: - Refer to individual’s degree of organization -Both mental and physical organization, planning and tidiness -Include how we regulate own impulses -e.g. Think before we act, delay gratification, follow rules and norms -Facets of competence, order, dutifulness, self-discipline -Low in conscientiousness: Place short-term pleasures ahead of long-term More likely to smoke and abuse alcohol High in conscientiousness: More organized, higher grade averages Related to workaholic, compulsive neatness ➣Two models of Five Factors: Big Five- Lexical approach: -Surgency (extraversion), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Culturw -Identified by Roman numerals, signify frequency of factors in lexicon -Extraversion (factor I), are more common word than Openness (Factor V) 3 factors by Costa & McCrae: -Anixiety-Adjustment (Neuroticism), Intro-extraversion, Openness to experience -Added Agreeableness and Conscientiousness due to lexical findings -Becoming the known Five-factors Model -also know as questionnaire factors Similarities: Having same identical factors Differences: Different naming of factors, views on factors -Big five of culture: narrower view of openness in FFM Different in history and attributes of the factors: -Big Five: Describe without tempt to explain where the attribute comes from -FFM: View five factors are biological traits ➣One-Factor Solution by Musek General personality factor (GPF):
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