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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Personality Psychology – Foundations and Findings Chapter 3 – Personality Traits: Practical Matters What’s Missing from the Five Factors? - Is Intelligence a Personality Trait? o Generally, cognitive abilities are not considered personality traits o Intelligence has been considered an aspect of openness when referring to a person’s sophistication and interests (not referring to IQ of person) o Intelligence has been considered an aspect of conscientiousness when describing someone as hardworking, smart or knowledgeable - Is Religiosity a Personality Trait? o Saucier & Goldberg, 1998 – religiosity is more appropriately considered a secondary trait, applicable for certain purposes, but not a core aspect of personality o Spiritual transcendence – the ability of individuals to “stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective” o Piedmont et al. – designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) with three facets: Prayer fulfillment, Universality, Connectedness  Discovered that scores on the transcendence scales were only slightly related to scores on the five factors and on the NEO-PI-R  Factor analysis yielded 6 factors – five factors plus transcendence  Findings suggest that spiritual transcendence is a dimension of personality separate from the five factors o To be determined by researchers if spirituality is a dimension of personality - Is Sexuality a Personality Trait? o Words that describe aspects of sexuality or that are more applicable to one gender than to another, were purposely excluded from early lexical studies o David Buss et al. – identified all adjectives referring to sexuality from standard dictionary and similar lexical sources  Through factor analysis – found 7 factors, the Sexy Seven: sexual attractiveness, relationship exclusivity, gender orientation, sexual restraint, erotophilic disposition, emotional investment, sexual orientation  Sexuality factors overlap almost 80% with the five factors, suggesting that they are not really separate factors o Sexuality can be accounted for by a combination of factors – it is not a separate personality trait o Sexuality is another way we express our traits of the Big Five - Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Trait o Greek – philotimo: a polite, generous, responsible, respectful person o Chinese – filial piety: caring for one’s elderly parents, continuing the family line o Japanese – amae: characterizes relationships between people of lower and higher status (i.e. bosses and workers) o Indigenous personality traits often lie beyond the Big Five The Five Factors in Other Countries - 1. Questionnaire measures of the FFM reliably replicate across many cultures and languages o NEO-PI-R applies very well across many countries and cultures o FFM – tested and validated in over 50 countries o There is evidence that the FFM dimensions are universally applicable - 2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of N, E, A, and C, but not O in many different cultures o The closer the culture is to a Northern European culture, the closer the results are to the Anglo-based Big Five - 3. Openness varies across cultures o Openness factor may be defined differently in ways unique to a specific culture hence why it does not consistently appear in other languages - 4. In some cultures, more than 5 factors are needed to fully describe personality o In languages where this happens, additional factors tap culture-specific forms of Extraversion or Agreeableness or aspects of social evaluation, that are salient in that culture - 5. We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture o Indigenous traits, traits originating in another language, are “interpretable as characteristic adaptations within the Five Factor Theory.” o Some say indigenous terms are missed by questionnaire and adjectival measures  Starting with the lexicon of a specific culture and seeing how many factors best account for personality in their cultures can help this problem - Personality Traits Cross-culturally: Personality Traits in China o Chinese college students scored virtually identical to their American counterparts on translated version of NEO-PI-R o Results were replicated for 29 out of 30 facets; facet of Actions, part of openness, did not load on any of the factors o Cheung et al., 1996 – developed Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) using a lexical approach by identifying descriptions of Chinese personality from literature, proverb, surveys, and previous research  Identified 10 trait clusters unique to Chinese personality; Harmony, Ren Qing, modernization, thrift, Ah-Q mentality, graciousness, veraciousness, slickness, face, family orientation, somatization  Factor analyzed to four factors: dependability, Chinese tradition, social potency, individualism o Cheung et al., 2001 – factor analyzed responses to the CPAI and the Chinese NEO-PI-R and found 6 factors: the five factors + interpersonal relatedness - Research Methods Illustrated: Triangulation and Types of Data o Triangulation: process of using multiple methods within a single program of research  Each method compensates for the weaknesses of the others o Types of data: LOTS  Include lots of sources of data in studies to maximize the validity o Self-report data/ S Data: includes objective personality tests, interviews, narratives, life stories, and survey research o Test data/T Data: includes information from testing situations  Data comes from experimental procedures or standardized measures that have rules for scoring performance  Includes data from intelligence tests, task persistence, reaction times, IAT, TAT o Observation data/O Data: collected by watching people in the lab or in daily life, by coding behaviour from phone or video, or getting information from knowledgeable informants o Life data/L Data: tracking down information about a person that is publicly available Expression of Traits in Everyday Life - Personality Traits of Presidents o Rubenzer et al., 2000 – identified traits of great presidents using the FFM o U.S. – presidents are more extraverted, less open to experience, and less agreeable  Great presidents are higher in openness than the average person, are aware of their feelings, imaginative, tend to score low on morality and cooperation, score high on achievement striving and competence  Neuroticism was not related to greatness - Music Preference and Personality Traits o Cattell – musical choice reflected unconscious motives o Rentfrow and Gosling – how do personality traits of the FFM relate to musical taste  College students rated music on a 1-7 scale (Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP)), researchers factor analyzed to find major types of music  Participants also filled out personality questionnaires, researchers correlated scores with the STOMP to see if there was a relationship between music preference and personality  Findings:  No gender preferences in music preference  No overall relationship between mood and music preference, although students might choose to listen to various songs depending on mood  Different personalities preferred different kinds of music  Factors:  Reflective and Complex (prefer blues, folk, classical, jazz), Intense and Rebellious (prefer alternative, heavy metal, rock), Upbeat and Conventional (prefer country, religious, pop), Energetic and Rhythmic (prefer funk, hip-hop, soul, electronica)  Table 3.4, 3.5  Extraverts like energetic and rhythmic music, and upbeat and conventional  Those high on openness like reflective and complex music, and intense and rebellious music, but they did not like upbeat and conventional  People open to new ideas are attracted to the rebellious and turned off the conventional  Those high on conscientiousness had a slight
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