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Chapter 11

Personality Textbook Chapter 11 and 12 Notes.docx

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Connie Boudens

Personality Textbook Chapter 11 and 12 Notes: CHAPTER 11: Gender and Personality - Women are more concerned with nurturing while men are more concerned with actions and accomplishments - Refer to table 1.1 - This tells us that women are concerned with other people, the social group, and feeling connected with others - While men focus on the individual and feelings of self protection - Stereotypes reinforce traditional sex roles - Janet Hyde found that 78% of the effects of difference between men and women were small (48%) or nonsignificant (30%) - The 5 columns in meta-analyses are: 1) Lists the variable and gives the exact effect size d 2) Classifies that variable into type of variable 3) Percentage of overlap between the distribution of males and females on that variable 4) Effect size (d) of the difference between males and females 5) Groups effect size by size - Men prefer realistic occupations more so than women - Women prefer people-orientated occupations - There’s no gender difference between general intelligence - Mood disorders and depression are more frequent in women - Neuroticism shows the highest gender difference with women averaging higher scores than men - Openness is identical across genders - When it comes to personality men and women are more similar than different - Men are more aggressive than women physically but verbally men are only slightly more aggressive - However men and women respond equally aggressively to a physical attack, insult, or a negative evaluation - Observational studies found that girls are more likely to hurt others purposely - Men are higher in impulsive sensation-seeking but they are only slightly more likely than women to engage in risky behaviours - Men smoke more in college but after college it increases in women - Women are more emphatic and sensitive to the unfortunate events of others than men are - Women are also more likely to feel emotions of people around them - Women are better at reading other people’s body language - There are no gender differences in physiological experience of emotions but women report more emotion if asked directly - Women feel social pressure to express emotions that protect their relationships - Women self-report to be more anxious than men but there are no gender differences in anxiety - Women’s helping behaviour is more communal, often taking place in close relationships whereas for men it takes place with strangers (men engage in more helping behaviour especially if witnesses are present) - There is no gender difference in leadership effectiveness but women are more likely to emerge as leaders in situations involving social leadership - Women are more easily swayed by the conformity of the pressure of others - Men have slightly higher self-esteem than women but this difference varies depending on age - Gender differences could be caused by biological differences (in females there is oxytocin released as well with leads to tend-and-befriend) - Some characteristics are thought to be a product of gender socialization that are innate - Feminist theories could also be the result of these differences - Evolutionary psychology also can be a cause of these differences which is humans have evolved to adapt to problems - Also social context can determine the reason for differences between
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