Chapter 8: Intrapsychic Foundations of personality
Transference- Where our early love relationships for our parents get transferred to our future spouse
Psychic energy- Freud believed that this fueled the functions of the mind including thinking, imagining
Instincts/ impulses- Always apart of us
Eros- Life instincts. Concerned with survival of the person and concerned with physiological needs such
as water and air.
Thanatos- Death instincts. Freud believed that this was aggression
Libido- Psychic energy of the life instincts
Freud believed that the most important life instincts is sex
Free Association- The patient is relaxed and the therapist talks to them enabling them to say whatever
comes to their mind
Dream analysis- Freud believed that dreams were a road to the unconscious.
Manifest content- People are able to describe what they saw in their dreams
Latent content- The hidden meaning of the dream
Parapraxes- Mistakes caused by unconscious desires
Freudian slip- Mistake in speech. Psychologists now believe that people could have been primed before
so it does not relate any innate desires.
Symbolic behaviours- Allows us to safely express or id impulses under the disguise or a harmless before.
Word association method- Used to identify the connections people make with words
IAT- Measures strength of association between concepts
Structural model of personality- the id, the ego and the superego
Two ways of satisfying the id:
1. Reflex action- When the id seeks gratification through immediate physical action
2. Wish fulfillment- The id seeks gratification by imagining what it wants through fantasies.
Identification- the ego tries to match the wishes of the id with events in the real world Superego- Watches over the id and ego and has two parts the conscience and ego ideal
Ego ideal- Contains knowledge of what we should do .Rewards us with feelings of pride when we have
done something right
The topographic model of personality- consists of the conscious, preconscious and unconscious minds
Preconscious mind- thoughts that are just outside of our awareness but are assessable is we try
Isolation- When we try to mentally separate a thought from another thought
Undoing- A person who has either thought about performing or who has already performed an
unacceptable behavior attempts to nullify that action with a later action. Ex. An abusive husband that
bring his wife flowers even though he knows what he has done
Counterfactual thinking- Going over past events in your mind and thinking about how you would have
done it differently
Catharsis study- Research has shown that the aggressive people after punching the punishing bag were
not less aggressive they were actually 3 times more aggressive than those who had not released their
Projection- We attribute our own disturbing or unacceptable impulses to another person. For example,
say we fight with a friend. Afterward in recalling the incident we might remark “She was very hostile”
instead of admitting our own feelings of aggression. Often- times, what we find annoying in other
people is actually more revealing of our own insecurities
Sublimation- Changing impulse into something more acceptable . Freud thought that we sublimate our
sexual tension into productive members.
The difference between suppression and repression:
In suppression the ego consciously keeps unacceptable thoughts or urges outside of our awareness
whereas in repression the process is unconscious. For example, if we are faced with an event or a