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Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

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Connie Boudens

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Personality PsychologyFoundations and FindingsChapter 9Regulation and Motivation SelfDetermination TheoryThere is more to motivation than rewards and punishment an intrinsic reward ie mastery of a skill can be more effective than an extrinsic one ie candySelfdetermination theorythere is a difference between engaging in an activity because of extrinsic reasons and doing so for intrinsic reasons the reasons why we do something are often more important than what we doo When we are extrinsically motivated acting because of external pressures like rewards and punishments we may not enjoy the activity as much perform the best or continue on our own o When we are intrinsically motivated acting because of our own desires and choices we enjoy the activity and increase our wellbeing The reasons why we do something ie intrinsic vs extrinsic and the way another person communicates expectations and instructions to us are important for effort performance and task persistenceThree Fundamental Psychological NeedsHumanistic traditionemphasizes responsibility growth and actualizing tendency the individual is an active organism looking for the best way to grow and develop Selfdetermination theory is grounded in humanistic traditionActualizing tendencythe motive to actualize or bring about growth and positive change 8There are 3 basic and universal psychological needs crosscultural universal essential for healthy development autonomy competence relatedness o Autonomyfeeling free and able to make choices about ones actions being selfregulating and able to determines ones own actions and plans o Competencefeeling effective in ones actions and having the opportunities and experiences to exercise expand and express ones abilitieso Relatednessfeeling connected to others having people to care for and to receive care from feeling a sense of belonging within a communityWhen needs are all met people are motivated and happy to participate in an activityHow Do We Satisfy These NeedsFostering Autonomy Autonomy Support o People must feel they can act out of their own volition o Autonomy supportstrategies that help individuals develop and express their own self o Control is the opposite of supporto There are ways of being autonomy supportive without being pressuring authoritarian and directive or resorting to controlling and punitive methodso Support autonomy by providing choice encouraging initiative o Autonomy cannot be developed if the person is hesitant or fearful of making any choice o Children learn to regulate and control their behaviour by making choices on trivial matters ie choosing what to wear o Parentsteachers should stand by to help children live with the consequences of these decisions o Recognizing and respecting the individuals point of view and feelings about the matter or helping individuals see how their actions relate to their personal goals helps them regulate their own behaviouro Limits can be communicated to children without undermining their authority in a way that increases their motivation and the quality of their performance
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