Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Personality Psychology – Foundations and Findings Chapter 11 – Gender and Personality - Differences in mental rotation can be seen in infants as young as 3-5 months of age, hence why it is assumed to be hard-wired into our biology as a result of evolution - Study: Women who trained on an action game were able to catch up in spatial ability to the average man without the training - Some gender differences may be changeable as a result of life experiences, opportunities, preferences, or expectations, rather than set in stone and due to innate differences Beliefs About Personality Similarities and Differences Between Men and Women - Tend to believe there are differences between men and women in personality, social roles, physical attributes, emotional experience and expression - Beliefs about differences are stable and consistent across cultures o Women: more concerned with nurturing o Men: more concerned with actions and accomplishments - Men and women pursue different careers, hobbies and favourite activities o Men: auto mechanic, carpenter, pilot, civil engineer, spend free time on computers, chess o Women: nurse, art teacher, social worker, spend free time shopping - Communion – way of approaching the social world with a concern for other people, as independent, and connected to others (women) - Agency – way of approaching the social world with a focus on the individual and feelings of self- protection and self-assertion (men) - Stereotype – generalization about a group of people in which attributes are assumed to be true for all members of the group regardless of actual variation - Gender stereotypes – traits and behaviours that people believe occur more frequently in one gender or the other - Research Methods Illustrated: Effect Size and Meta-Analysis o Effect size tells us the impact or importance of a variable to the overall observed effect (i.e. the size of a significant difference)  d = (M m M)/sf, where M is the average score for males and females respectively, and s is the standard deviation of the scores o Meta-analysis – researchers combine the individual results of different experiments to calculate an estimate of how large an effect is across many different participants, samples, experimenters, methods, and measures o When effect size is small, there is a huge overlap in the distributions of the scores of men and women, a moderate difference will likely be noticeable in everyday life, large differences are generally already known to be different for men and women o A meta-analysis is only as good as the data that goes into it Personality Differences Between Men and Women: Fact or Fiction? - The results of many effect size analyses summarize that men and women are the most different when it comes to physical attributes (i.e. height and strength), some aspects of sexuality, and qualities desired in a potential mate - Men prefer realistic jobs more so than women (i.e. working with machines, equipment, and inanimate objects) - Women prefer people-oriented jobs that involve managing and interacting with people - No gender differences in preference for occupations that require creative thought and intellectual effort; data-oriented occupations; or conventional occupations - No gender difference in general intelligence , but there are some differences in specific mental abilities - Men score slightly higher in performance on word problems, spatial ability and spatial visualization, score much better in spatial perception and mental rotation - Substance-related disorders, childhood disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders – more frequent among men - Mood disorders, depression – more frequent among women - Gender Similarities and Differences in the Five-Factor Model o Women average higher Neuroticism scores o Genders are almost identical in Openness o Women slightly higher Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, across all cultures o Meta-analysis shows large differences in facets of assertiveness (men higher) and tender- mindedness (women higher), small differences in anxiety, trust, and order (women higher) - Gender Differences in Other Aspects of Personality and Social Behaviour o Aggression  Men are more physically aggressive than women, only slightly more verbally aggressive (unless the woman has been directly threatened, where there will be no difference)  Bettencourt and Miller, 1996 – gender differences are most apparent under conditions of unprovoked aggression but disappear when people have been directly threatened  When provoked, women are slightly more likely to respond with verbal aggression than men  Both respond equally aggressively to physical attacks, insults or negative evaluations  Men respond more aggressively to frustration and insults of intelligence  Gender differences across all kinds of aggression were greatest in young adulthood, decreased with age  During childhood and adolescence, girls engage in more indirect or relational aggression (i.e. gossip) o Risk Taking  Men – higher in impulsive sensation-seeking, only slightly more likely to engage in risky behaviours  Gender difference in risk taking depends on context, type of risk, and age  There were significant gender differences across all age groups, but what was considered risky tended to vary by age  Boys and men – tend to take more risks even when it’s a bad idea - Gender Differences? It Depends o Empathy  Women show more empathy and sympathy than men (but results are based on self-report)  No gender differences on unobtrusive measures of empathy (i.e. facial expression)  Women are more likely to feel the emotions of those around them according to self-report  Women are better at reading body language and facial expressions, expressing emotions nonverbally, engage in more eye contact o Emotion  Gender differences in emotions depend more on cultural factors, situational influences, gender role pressures, and the measures used  No gender differences in physiological experiences of emotions, but women report more emotion if asked directly and if asked about general, not a specific, emotion  Women – feel sadness, depression, bad moods more intensely  Men – feel pride, confidence, guilt and excitement more  Results suggest that self-reported emotions parallel gender role expectations (supported cross-culturally)  Women feel social pressure to express emotions that protect and foster relationships (i.e. warmth, support, cheerfulness)  Gender differences in emotional experience may have more to do with gender role expectations or experimental methods than a dispositional difference between men and women o Anxiety  No gender differences in anxiety  Some studies report men are more physiologically reactive o Helping Behaviour  Men engage in more helping behaviour than women, especially if people are watching  If there are no witnesses, there are no gender differences  Genders differ in the type of helping they provide  Women – caregiving, communal, in close relationships  Men – rescuing, agentic, with strangers o Leadership  No gender differences in leadership effectiveness  Women – democratic leaders  Men – autocratic leaders  Difference in leadership is of style rather than effectiveness 
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.