His recent inability to maintain an erection when making love to his wife was the immediate
reason for his seeking therapy
Brett didn’t have a happy childhood. His mother died suddenly when he was only 6 and for the
next 10 yrs he lived either with his father or with a maternal aunt. His father drank heavily and
the mans moods were extremely variable; he had even been hospitalized with a diagnosis of
manic depressive psychosis
Brett often became depressed for no apparent reason and sometimes this was followed by
periods of manic
He felt self conscious with ppl who he felt had authority over him and he was esp sensitive
about his clothes which were old compared to his peers
He entered the police academy and he had hopes that his badge and uniform would give him
the instant respect that he seemed incapable of earning on his own
He wondered if he was actually avoiding the responsibility of having a child
He attacked her both verbally and physically about her alleged infidelity and then got help
Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior,
thoughts, feelings, we do well to keep in mind that the subject offers few hard and fast answers.
o We know with certainity much less about our field than we would like.
o In studying abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective.
As scientists we have to grapple with the difference between what we may feel is the
appropriate way to talk about human behavior and experience and what may be a more
productive way of defining it in order to study and learn about it.
We know of no greater intellectual or emotional challenge than deciding both how to
conceptualize the life of a person with psychological problems and how best to treat him or her.
What is abnormal behavior?
Hard to define abnormal behavior
Abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time. Our
best definition of abnormal behavior includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency,
violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness.
Our abnormal behavior is infrequent in the general pop.
The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority of ppl in the middle as far as any
particular characteristic is concerned; very few ppl fall at either extreme.
As assertion that a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the avg
in a particular triat or behavior patterns.
Used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation. When an indiv IQ is below 70 his or her intellectual functioning is considered sufficiently below
subnormal to be designated as mental retardation
Statistical component gives us lil guidance in determining which infrequent behaviors
psychopathologists shud study EX: having great atletic ability is infrequent but does not fall
under abnormal behavior.
Violation of norms
Whether the behavior violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it.
The anti-social behavior of the psychopath fits the definition of anormal as do the obsessive-
compulsive person complex rituals and the osychotic person conversation with imagery voices.
Violation of norms is at once too broad and too narrow, as it depens on cultrural diversity and it
affects how ppl view the social norms.
EX: criminals and prostitutes, for example violate social norms but are not usually studied within
the domain of abnomal psychology.
Personal suffering: that is the behavior is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the
person experiencing it.
Fits many forms of abnormality.
Ppl experiencing anxiety disorders and depression truly suffer greatly.
Some disorders do not involve distress: the psychopath-for example treats others cold-heatedly
and may continually violate the law without experiencing any guilt or remorse, or anxisty what
NOT all forms of distress—for example, hunger or the pain of childbirth-belong to this field.
Disability or dysfunction
Disability: it is an impairment in some important area of life e.g work or personal relationship
because of an abnormality—can also be a component of abnormal behavior. EX: someones
Substance-use disorders are also defined in part by the social or occupational disability (e.g.
poor work performance, serious arguments with one’s spouce) created by substance abuse and
addiction. (AASHIQI 2 ;) ]
a phobia can produce both distress and disability (fear of flying)
like suffereing, disability applies to some, but not all disorders.
Transvestism (cross-dressing for sexual pleasure) is currently diagnosed as a mental disorder if it
distresses the person, is not necessarily a disability.
On the other hand, being short, if u wanna be a professional basketball player—do not fall
within the domain of abnormal psychology, we do not have a rule that tells us which disability
belong and which do not.
Unexpectedness Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responces to
environmental stressors. EX: anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and
out of proportion to the situation.
EX: hunger on the other hand, is an expected response to not eating.= no abnormal behavior.
These characteristics together offer a usefull framework for beginning to define abnormality,
the characteristics presented constitue a partial definition.
Focus on discovery 1.1 The mental health professions.
Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychological service, takes different
Several types of clinicians:
o Clinical psychologist: requires Ph.D or Psy.D. degree, which entails four to seven years
of graduate study.
2. s on jurisdication of the provinces and terroties whether to have a doctoral or
master level degree.
o Psychologist is reserved as for doctoral and masters level degree referred to as
o Agreement on interanal trade (AIT)- argued that credentials of professional
psychologists from one part of Canada would be recognized in other parts of Canada.
o 5 core competencies to be a registered psychologist
1. Interpersonal relationships
2. Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)
3. Intervention and consultation
5. Ethics and standards
o Phd in clininical psychology requires- laboratory work, research design, statistics and the
empirically based study of human and animal behavior.
o Learn skills in two additional areas, which distincguishes them from other Ph.D
candidates in psychology.
1. Learn techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders.
2. They learn how to practise psychotherapy, a primarily verbal means of helping
troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings and behavior to reduce
disress and to achive greater life satisfaction.
o Psy.D –less emphasis on research and more on clinical training. The process is same as
o The phs approach is based on sceintific-practisioner model while psy.D approach is
based on scholar-practitioner model.
o Psychologists are Canada’s single largest group of licensed and specialized mental health
care providers. o A psychiatrist: holds an MD degree and has had postgraduated training, called a
residency in which he/she has recived supervision in the practice of diagnosis and
o Psychiatrists engage in prescribing Psychoactive drugs: chemical compounds that can
influence how ppl feel and think.
strong interest in psychotherapy training.
o Psychoanalyst: received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute..required MD
and psychiatric residency.
Fewer ppl in the field
o Social worker: obtains an M.S.W (masters of social work) degree.
Counselling psychologists: aresomwhat similar to graduate training in
clinical psychology but usuall have less emphasis on research and the
more severe forms of psychopathology.
Psychiactric nurse: specializes in the mental health field.
Psychological services are more available in urban areas than in rural areas and that
psychiactrists tend to practice in major urban centres.
History of psychopathology
o Many early philosophers, theologians and physicians who studied troubled mind believed that
deviancy reflected the displeasure of the gods, or possessions by demons.
o Demonology: the doctarine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and
control his or her mind and body.
o Demonology thinking are found in : Chinese, Egyptians, bablonians, and Greeks.
o Among the Hebrews deviancy was attributed to possession of the person by bad spirits, after
god in his weath had withdrawn protection.
o Belief that abnormal behavior was caused by possession, its treatment involved Exoscism: the
casting out if evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture (flogging and starvation).
o Trepanning: of skulls (the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument) by
stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread.
o it was a way of treating epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders attributed to
demaons within the cranium.
o Introduced into the Americans from Siberia.
o Despite the extensive focus in Aboriginal cultures on possession by spirits, the widely
accepted interpretation of the historial data has been disputed.
o Trepanning were done to relieve pressure resulting from depressed fractures cause by
Samatogenesis Hippocrates often r