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Chapter 1

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Connie Guberman

Chapter 1: Bretts Childhood  His recent inability to maintain an erection when making love to his wife was the immediate reason for his seeking therapy  Brett didn’t have a happy childhood. His mother died suddenly when he was only 6 and for the next 10 yrs he lived either with his father or with a maternal aunt. His father drank heavily and the mans moods were extremely variable; he had even been hospitalized with a diagnosis of manic depressive psychosis  Brett often became depressed for no apparent reason and sometimes this was followed by periods of manic  He felt self conscious with ppl who he felt had authority over him and he was esp sensitive about his clothes which were old compared to his peers  He entered the police academy and he had hopes that his badge and uniform would give him the instant respect that he seemed incapable of earning on his own  He wondered if he was actually avoiding the responsibility of having a child  He attacked her both verbally and physically about her alleged infidelity and then got help  Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior, thoughts, feelings, we do well to keep in mind that the subject offers few hard and fast answers.  Challenges: o We know with certainity much less about our field than we would like. o In studying abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective.  As scientists we have to grapple with the difference between what we may feel is the appropriate way to talk about human behavior and experience and what may be a more productive way of defining it in order to study and learn about it.  We know of no greater intellectual or emotional challenge than deciding both how to conceptualize the life of a person with psychological problems and how best to treat him or her. What is abnormal behavior?  Hard to define abnormal behavior  Abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time. Our best definition of abnormal behavior includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness. Statistical infrequencies  Our abnormal behavior is infrequent in the general pop.  The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority of ppl in the middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned; very few ppl fall at either extreme.  As assertion that a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the avg in a particular triat or behavior patterns.  Used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation.  When an indiv IQ is below 70 his or her intellectual functioning is considered sufficiently below subnormal to be designated as mental retardation  Statistical component gives us lil guidance in determining which infrequent behaviors psychopathologists shud study EX: having great atletic ability is infrequent but does not fall under abnormal behavior. Violation of norms  Whether the behavior violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it.  The anti-social behavior of the psychopath fits the definition of anormal as do the obsessive- compulsive person complex rituals and the osychotic person conversation with imagery voices.  Violation of norms is at once too broad and too narrow, as it depens on cultrural diversity and it affects how ppl view the social norms.  EX: criminals and prostitutes, for example violate social norms but are not usually studied within the domain of abnomal psychology. Personal distress  Personal suffering: that is the behavior is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it.  Fits many forms of abnormality.  Ppl experiencing anxiety disorders and depression truly suffer greatly.  Some disorders do not involve distress: the psychopath-for example treats others cold-heatedly and may continually violate the law without experiencing any guilt or remorse, or anxisty what so ever.  NOT all forms of distress—for example, hunger or the pain of childbirth-belong to this field. Disability or dysfunction  Disability: it is an impairment in some important area of life e.g work or personal relationship because of an abnormality—can also be a component of abnormal behavior. EX: someones marriage life.  Substance-use disorders are also defined in part by the social or occupational disability (e.g. poor work performance, serious arguments with one’s spouce) created by substance abuse and addiction. (AASHIQI 2 ;) ]  a phobia can produce both distress and disability (fear of flying)  like suffereing, disability applies to some, but not all disorders.  Transvestism (cross-dressing for sexual pleasure) is currently diagnosed as a mental disorder if it distresses the person, is not necessarily a disability.  On the other hand, being short, if u wanna be a professional basketball player—do not fall within the domain of abnormal psychology, we do not have a rule that tells us which disability belong and which do not. Unexpectedness  Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responces to environmental stressors. EX: anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation.  EX: agoraphobia.  EX: hunger on the other hand, is an expected response to not eating.= no abnormal behavior.  These characteristics together offer a usefull framework for beginning to define abnormality, the characteristics presented constitue a partial definition. Focus on discovery 1.1 The mental health professions.  Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychological service, takes different forms.  Several types of clinicians: o Clinical psychologist: requires Ph.D or Psy.D. degree, which entails four to seven years of graduate study. 1. Depend 2. s on jurisdication of the provinces and terroties whether to have a doctoral or master level degree. o Psychologist is reserved as for doctoral and masters level degree referred to as psychological associates. o Agreement on interanal trade (AIT)- argued that credentials of professional psychologists from one part of Canada would be recognized in other parts of Canada. o 5 core competencies to be a registered psychologist 1. Interpersonal relationships 2. Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis) 3. Intervention and consultation 4. Research 5. Ethics and standards o Phd in clininical psychology requires- laboratory work, research design, statistics and the empirically based study of human and animal behavior. o Learn skills in two additional areas, which distincguishes them from other Ph.D candidates in psychology. 1. Learn techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders. 2. They learn how to practise psychotherapy, a primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings and behavior to reduce disress and to achive greater life satisfaction. o Psy.D –less emphasis on research and more on clinical training. The process is same as ph.d students. o The phs approach is based on sceintific-practisioner model while psy.D approach is based on scholar-practitioner model. o Psychologists are Canada’s single largest group of licensed and specialized mental health care providers. o A psychiatrist: holds an MD degree and has had postgraduated training, called a residency in which he/she has recived supervision in the practice of diagnosis and psychotherapy. o Psychiatrists engage in prescribing Psychoactive drugs: chemical compounds that can influence how ppl feel and think.  strong interest in psychotherapy training. o Psychoanalyst: received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute..required MD and psychiatric residency.  Fewer ppl in the field o Social worker: obtains an M.S.W (masters of social work) degree.  Counselling psychologists: aresomwhat similar to graduate training in clinical psychology but usuall have less emphasis on research and the more severe forms of psychopathology.  Psychiactric nurse: specializes in the mental health field.  Psychological services are more available in urban areas than in rural areas and that psychiactrists tend to practice in major urban centres. History of psychopathology o Many early philosophers, theologians and physicians who studied troubled mind believed that deviancy reflected the displeasure of the gods, or possessions by demons. Early demonology o Demonology: the doctarine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body. o Demonology thinking are found in : Chinese, Egyptians, bablonians, and Greeks. o Among the Hebrews deviancy was attributed to possession of the person by bad spirits, after god in his weath had withdrawn protection. o Belief that abnormal behavior was caused by possession, its treatment involved Exoscism: the casting out if evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture (flogging and starvation). o Trepanning: of skulls (the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument) by stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread. o it was a way of treating epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders attributed to demaons within the cranium. o Introduced into the Americans from Siberia. o Despite the extensive focus in Aboriginal cultures on possession by spirits, the widely accepted interpretation of the historial data has been disputed. o Trepanning were done to relieve pressure resulting from depressed fractures cause by war clubs. Samatogenesis  Hippocrates often r
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