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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Personality Traits - Practical Matters.doc
Chapter 3 - Personality Traits - Practical Matters.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 4: Personality Traits: Practical Matters Study: People shook hands with trained experimenters who interpreted their handshakes into personality types and after were found to be accurate when compared to their personality tests. What’s Missing From the Five Factors? Additional characteristics  10 adjectival clusters beyond the five factors & HEXACO (not including physical characteristics, demographics and unusual behaviours) • Paunonen : created the Supernumerary Personality Inventory to measure these factors ← Is Intelligence a Personality Trait? ← Cognitive abilities ≠ personality traits • BUT Cattell : identified ability traits such as memory, mathematical ability, and intelligence ← 1. Big Five Openness used to consist of sophistication, artistic and intellectual interests and intelligence  Lexicals thought intelligence was more a part of Culture. Also, intelligent, knowledgeable and cultured can be Conscientiousness. ← 2. People refer to intelligence with other personality descriptors: intelligent, rational and logical, clear-minded, mature ≠ IQ  it’s more related to Conscientiousness ← 3. The are individual differences in how people perceive and process information about the social world  Emotional Intelligence ← Is Religiosity a Personality Trait? ← Religion ≠ personality BUT 75% people believe religion is a core part of who they are. ← Saucier and Goldberg : Religiosity is beyond that five factors and is more a secondary trait ← There are correlations between religiosity and Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and sometimes Openness and Extraversion depending on the aspect of religiosity under study ← Spiritual Transcendence – a dimension of personality separate from the five factors: the ability of individuals to view life from a larger, more objective perspective; a personal search for a greater connection across all of humanity. • Piedmont : spiritual transcendence is a personal search for a greater connection rather than a spiritual encounter with a higher being. o Designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS).  Facets: Prayer Fulfillment, Universality and Connectedness  Scores of the facets, barely correlated with the five factors  Factor analysis  6 independent factors = five factors + Spiritual Transcendence  Scores predicted measure of life; STS + personality predicted locus of control beliefs for health issues, vulnerability to stress, responsiveness to others, perceived social support, prosocial behaviour, positive sexual attitudes and prochoice and prolife attitudes toward abortion ← Is Sexuality a Personality a Trait? ← Sexuality was excluded from the lexical factors  disregard for sexuality as part of personality ← Buss : identified the Sexy Seven – dimensions of personality the describe sexuality and overlap about 80% with the five factors: Sexual Attractiveness, Relationship Exclusivity, Gender Orientation, Sexual Restraint, Erotophilic Disposition, Emotional Investment and Sexual Orientation.  not separate from the five factors, rather sexuality is an expression of it. ← Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits? ← Personality traits are hard to describe in other cultures, especially when five factors were American. ← Philotimo – an indigenous Greek trait term describing the qualities of being polite, generous, responsible, respectful, and having a strong sense of honour. ← Filial Piety – an indigenous Chinese trait term describing the qualities of caring for the mental and physical well-being of one’s elderly parents, continuing the family line and brining honour to one’s family and ancestors. ← Amae – an indigenous Japanese trait term describing a state of dependency on another person and the inducing of responsibility for caregiving in that other person. ← Indigenous trait terms help explain our concepts to people of other cultures and countries. ← Indigenous trait terms are outside of the five factors. ← The Five Factors in Other Cultures ← 1. Questionnaire measures of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages • NEO-PI-R is translates-back-translated and applies well in many countries and cultures • FFM is universally applicable; tested and validated in over 50 countries, similar outcomes, and correlates well with meaningful external criteria on life outcomes. ← 2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness but not Openness in many different cultures. • Closer the culture to a Northern European culture  closer results to Anglo-based Big Five ← 3. Openness varies across cultures. • Lexical Big Five model finds Openness to culture and language specific • Saucier and Goldberg : there were slight variations in which adjectives were in the Openness factor in German, Turkish, Hebrew, Filipino and Dutch. • Benet-Martinez and Oishi : Openness is unique to Anglo-Saxon cultures, specifically it’s facets. • BUT the indicator of Openness, chills experience is universal (less in African cultures due to measurement problems), but what causes the visceral and physiological response may not be. ← 4. In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality. • Additional factors are culture-specific forms of Extraversion or Agreeableness or aspects of social evaluation. • Interpersonal relationships are important  many terms indifferent languages o Agreeableness and Conscientiousness is universal and culture-specific ← 5. We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture. • McCrae and Costa : Indigenous Traits – words describing personality that are unique to a specific culture or language group and not found in Anglo-Saxon cultures – are interpretable as characteristic adaptations within the Five Factor Theory. • Most measures didn’t account for indigenous terms  Allport and Odbert : researched how many factors best account for personality within specific cultures ← Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China ← China is a “collective” culture stemming from the roots of Confucianism. ← Five-factor model is tested using NEO-PI-R, the results replicate the FFM for 29/30 facets, the facet of Action, part of Openness results for the Chinese are not the same as Americans. • Is similarity due to the structure of the questionnaire or Western influence? ← Cheung : developed the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) using a lexical approach • 10 trait clusters unique to Chinese personality: Harmony, Ren Qing – an indigenous Chinese trait term that refers to a traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and connectedness, Modernization, Thrift, Ah-Q – an indigenous Chinese trait term that means defensiveness: named for Ah-Q, a well-known fictional Chinese character depicted in a classic novel, Graciousness, Veraciousness- Slickness, Face, Family Orientation and Somatization • Factor analyzed ^ = 4 factors: Dependability, Chinese Tradition, Potency and Individualism. • Factor analyzed CPAI and Chinese NEO-PI-R = Five-factors + Interpersonal Relatedness – an indigenous personality factor unique to the Chinese referring to instrumentality of relationships, propriety, avoidance of conflict, support of traditions and compliance with norms. Includes the traits of Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q and Face. • Six-factor is best applied to Chinese, but doesn’t apply to Westerners, where Five-factor is best ← Research Methods Illustrated: Triangulation and Types of Data ← Triangulation – using multiple methodologies within a single study, to compensate for weaknesses ← Personality psychologists’ 4 kinds of data collection: 1. S Data – self-report data, they include any information people respond to directly, such as objective personality test, interviews, narratives, life stories and survey questions 2. T Data – test data, they include information about people’s reactions to a structured situation, such as experimental procedures, intelligence tests, performance tests and projective tests. i. Implicit Association Test (reaction-time test), Thematic Apperception Test, Rorchach Inkblot Test 3. O Data – observation data, they include information given by friends, family, teachers, trained raters or others based on watching how people behave in the laboratory or in their daily lives i. Less bias 4. L Data – life data, they include information about people that is publically available, such as graduating from college, clubs and organizations, criminal records, marriages and so forth. ← CIA used triangulation to select the best candidates to become spies. ← Expression of Traits in Everyday Life ← Personality Traits of Presidents ← Rubenzer : identified the traits of great presidents by having experts play the role of a president and having them fill out the NEO- PI-R as the president would. • Compared to the US population presidents are more extraverted, less open to experience and less agreeable. • They are higher in facets of achievement striving (Conscientiousness) and emotionality (Openness) but lower on psychological liberalism (Openness), morality (Agreeableness) and modesty (Agreeableness). • Presidents who are truly great are higher in Openness (related to general cognitive ability  smarter) than the average person. They have artistic interests, psychological liberalism and intellect. They are slightly more Extraverted ( facet: assertive) and Conscientious (facet: achievement, striving and competence) and less Agreeable (facet: sympathy, morality, cooperation). Neuroticism not related, but those vulnerable had low ratings. o Eg. Washington  high Conscientiousness o Eg. Lincoln  high Openness and Neuroticism ← Music Preferences and Personality Traits ← Rentfrow and Gosling : College students take the Short Test of Musical Preferences (STOMP) and personality questionnaires to identify how the five-factors relate to musical taste. 1. No gender differences in music preference 2. Chronic moods (Eg. being depressed) had no impact on music preferences BUT people may chose songs depending on moods BUT no real relationship 3. Different personalities  different preference of music ← Music Factor← Musical Genres ←
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