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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kira A Borden

3: Personality Traits: Practical Matters WHATS MISSING FROM THE FIVE FACTORS o We eliminate adjectives that describe physical characteristics (short, tall), demographics (employed, unemployed) unusual behavior and other adjectives not typically used to refer to personality o Paunonen created supernumerary personality inventory to measure these factors IS INTELLIGENCE A PERSONALITY TRAIT? o COGNITIVE ABILITIES ARE NOT CONSIDERED PERSONALITY TRAITS o RAYMOND CATTELL, IDENTIFIED ABILITY TRAITS SUCH AS MEMORY, MATHEMATICAL ABILITY AND INTELLIGENCE o OPENNESS AS CONSISTING OF SOPHISTICATION, ARTISTIC AND INTELLIGENCE o Participants rate themselves on intelligence adjectives such as hardworking, smart, these end up loading on a conscientiousness factor and are not related to measured intelligence IS RELIGIOSITY A PERSONALITY TRAIT? o Religion has not occupied a central role in psychology and certainly not in the study of personality o Saucier and Goldberg suggested that religiosity considered a secondary trait but not a core aspect of personality o Spiritual Transcendence, the ability of individuals to stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life form a larger more objective perspective o The spiritual transcendence scale has three facets: prayer fulfillment, feeling of joy and contentedness from connection with the transcendent  Universality: seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harm all  Connectedness, feelings belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude for others across generations and across social groups o Spiritual transcendence and personality together predicted scores on locus of control beliefs for health issues, vulnerability to stress, responsiveness to others, perceived social support o When Schmitt and Buss factor analyzed these responses they found 7 sexuality factor referred as sexy seven GRS-SEES  Sexual attractiveness- sexy, stunning, attractive  Relationship exclusivity- faithful, monogamous, promiscuous  Gender orientation- feminine, womanly, manly, masculine  Sexual restraint- virginal, celibate, chaste  Erotophilic Disposition- obscene, vulgar, lewed  Emotional Investment- loving, romantic, passionate  Sexual orientation o Sexuality factor overlap almost 80% with the five factor o Sexuality can be accounted for by a combination of factors and facets of the five factors sexuality is not a separate personality trait Indigenous Personality: unique personality traits? o A person who is polite, generous, responsible, respectful= in Greek you recognize as PHILOTIMO o Chinese, FILIAL PIETY is a very desirable personality trait and is much more than obeying and honoring ones parent o AMAE- would seem very natural among Japanese adults, it characterize relationships between people of lower and higher status such as bosses and workers o Korean concept CHEONG (human affection) o Indian concept- HISHKAMA KARMA (detachment) o Mexican concept- SIMPATIA (avoidance of conflict) o Filipino concept – PAKIKISAMA (going along with others) The five factor in other cultures 1. Questionaries’ measure of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages 2. Adjectival measures of the Big five reveal variations of Neuroticism, Extraversion Agreeableness and conscientiousness but not openness in many different cultures 3. Openness varies across cultures a. Openness factor does not consistently appear in other languages it may be that this factor thought it exists cross-culturally is defined differently in ways unique is specific culture 4. In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality 5. We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspect of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture Personality traits cross culturally: personality traits in china o China has a collectivistic culture stemming from roots in Confucianism which emphasizes the fundamental relatedness among individuals o Chinese values that is traits important within Chinese culture o Cheung developed the Chinese personality assessment inventory CPAI , he used lexical approach  This led to identification of 10 traits: Harmony , REN QING (traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take connectedness, Modernization( traditionalism), thrift, AH-Q mentality (defensiveness), graciousness, veraciousness slickness, face, family orientation and somatization (physical symptoms) o They also found 6 factor, five from the five factor model as one might expect, plus an indigenous personality factor they called interpersonal relatedness made up of Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q and face Research Method- Triangulation and types of Data o This process of using multiple methods within a single program of research is called triangulation o Personality tests or to her self-report questionaries’ called self report data or S data o We could also place a person in controlled situation that test them to see how they respond test data include information from testing situations = t data o Instead of replying on one self reports we might collect observational data by watching people in the lab = O data Expression of traits in everyday life o Personality traits: body language, taste in decorating and in music, our online presence on the internet and also in the career we choose Personality traits of President o Presidents tend to be more extraverted, and less open to experience and less agreeable o Presidents who are rated as truly great tend to be higher in openness than the average person o They also tend to be willing to question tradition values o Great presidents tend to slightly more extraverted and conscientious and a little le
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