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Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4 PSYB30 Chapter 4 Personality Assessment What Makes a Good Personality Test?  Developers of personality tests must demonstrate that the test is valid and reliable, specify the conditions, populations and cultures the test applies to o Also provide theoretical background and research evidence confirming/disconfirming that the test is related to certain outcomes  A good personality test allows us to make inferences about behavior, a construct or other variable from the results Test Reliability: Generalizability Across Time, Items, and Raters  Reliability: an estimate of how consistent a test is o Describes the extent to which test scores are consistent and reproducible with repeated measurements  Temporal consistency reliability: when an assessment gives consistent results across time, often demonstrated by test-retest reliability o Tested by having respondents take the test a second time to see if their scores are similar (test-retest reliability) o Need to be careful participants aren’t just remembering what they said the first time  The second test is set after a long time from the first test to make sure there is no memory of the last test  Internal consistency reliability: see if different items of the test give similar results  Parallel-form reliability: Developing two versions of a test that were comparable and checked to see that the scores on the parallel forms of the test were similar  Split-half reliability: Splitting a test in half and seeing if test – taker’s scores on one half correlated with scores on the other half  Cronbach’s alpha: the generalizability of the score from one set of items to another o Taking the correlated between the scores of two halves of a test and calculating the average correlation of all possible halves of the test  Researches make sure they have an alpha of about.7 or .8 since an unreliable measure makes it harder to find a true effect o .9 if dealing with judging or comparing individuals (IQ tests)  Interrater reliability: how reliable measures are across multiple raters o Might have two separate judges rate the personality or behavior of a third person o Calculate average correlation among the scores of all raters or the percentage agreement among raters o If raters are consistent in their judgment, then these correlations ought to be high Test Validity  Validity: extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure o Grounded in research evidence; if it correlates with some standard  Construct – validity: if a test can measure the underlying concept (construct) which derives from a theory o Must be found in every test  Face validity: when it appears to measure the construct of interest o Example: a test that asks about suicide ideation, mood, feelings of sadness, is measuring depression (high face validity) o Makes it clear what they are asking about, not a vague test that is not easily identifiable  Face validity is useful under two conditions Chapter 4 PSYB30 o Important for personnel testing/other situations where the cooperation and motivation of the test-taker can affect the results of a test  They will take the test more seriously if they know how it affects the job otherwise they will purposely change answers or find it a waste of time o When researchers are developing a new measure of a concept  Criterion validity: determines how good a test is by comparing the results of the test to an external standard  Convergent validity: check to see if our test is similar to other tests of the same/related constructs  Discriminant validity: also want to make sure that tests are different from tests of constructs that we theorize to be unrelated to the one in interest  Ideally want the test to be between convergent and discriminant  Giving feedback to people/group who share a certain characteristic o If the test gives ambiguous/general feed back that could apply to almost anyone, it lacks predictive validity  Barnum Effect: When people falsely believe that invalid personality tests are actually good measures of personality because they contain feedback so general that it applies to many people at the same time Test Generalizability  Generalizability: established the boundaries or limitations of a test  Can’t use a test for a use other than what it was intended Personality Tests Types and Formats of Personality Tests  Self – Report: respondents answer questions about themselves o Response formats, question styles vary depending on purpose of the test and the construct the researcher is trying to measure  Performance –based: unstructured format which participants respond to a stimulus in as much detail as they would like o Projecting peoples private worlds; reflected in their answers Self – Report Tests  May use a dichotomous two-choice scale (true/false, yes/no)  May use Likert-type rating scale (strongly disagree – strongly agree) o Look at agreement, degree, similarity, frequency or number/point scales  May
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