Textbook Notes (363,611)
Canada (158,470)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 4

PSYB30-Chapter 4 Notes .docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Chapter 4: Personality Assessment  Personality assessment is the measurement of the individual characteristics of a person. Though there are many types of methods that researchers use to study personality, the most commonly used are personality tests. What Makes a Good Personality Test?  According to standards up by professional organizations in education and psychology, including the American Psychological Association, the developers of a personality test must demonstrate that the test is valid and reliable, and specify the conditions, populations, and cultures the test applies to.  The biggest difference between a personality test you might find on the Internet and what you find in journals or purchase from recognized publisher is that legitimate personality tests have reliability, validity, and generalizability, backed by research evidence that is available for public scrutiny. Test Reliability: Generalizability Across Time, Items, and Raters  Reliability is a prerequisite for validity. We cannot know the correct time with an unreliable watch. A measure must first be consistent in order to be a valid representation of an underlying theoretical construct. Reliability is an estimate of how consistent a test is: A good test gives consistent results over time, items, or raters.  Reliability describes the extent to which test scores are consistent and reproducible with repeated measurements.  Temporal consistency-reliability: When an assessment gives consistent results across time, often demonstrated by test-retest reliability.  Test-retest reliability: A measure of temporal consistency; when a test gives a consistent result from one point in time to a later point in time.  Internal consistency reliability: When an assessment gives consistent results across items, demonstrated parallel forms reliability, split-half reliability, or Cronbach’s alpha reliability.  Parallel-forms reliability: A measure of internal consistency reliability; when two or more versions of a test give consistent results.  Split-half reliability: A measure of internal consistency reliability; when each half of a test gives consistent results.  Cronbach’s alpha (α): A measure of internal consistency reliability; the average correlation among all possible combinations of test items taking them half at a time.  Interrater reliability: A measure of rater consistency; when there is agreement among raters. Test Validity:  Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure.  Every test aims to measure an underlying concept called a construct, which derives from a theory. Therefore, ultimately, every test must have construct validity and successfully measure the theoretical concept it was designed to measure.  Construct validity: when an assessment successfully measures the theoretical concept it was designed to measure.  A test has face validity when it appears to measure the construct of interest. For example, you might reasonably figure out that a test that asks about suicide ideation, mood, feelings of sadness, and changes in appetite is measuring feelings of depression. This is an example of a test with high face validity. However, with neuropsychological tests or tests asking about how one interacts with other people it would be harder to see exactly what concept the test is measuring. These are examples of tests with low face validity.  Face validity is not the most convincing type of validity. However, it is useful under two conditions. First, face validity is important for personnel testing, or other situations where the cooperation and motivation of the test-taker can affect the results of the test.  A second useful condition for face validity is when researchers are developing a new measure of a concept. Often, they will think of items that appear to measure what they want the test to measure, then they will administer their test to respondents and see which items are actually related o the trait or concept the researcher wants to measure.  Criterion validity determines how good a test is, by comparing the results of the test to an external standard like another personality test or some behavioural outcome.  Criterion validity: Establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to an external standard such as another personality test or some behavioural outcome.  In addition to criterion validity, we might check to see if out test is similar to other tests of the same construct or to tests of related constructs. This establishes convergent validity. At the same time, we want to be sure that our test is different from tests of constructs that we theorize to be unrelated to the one we are interested in. We might look for discriminant validity to be sure that out test taps a different concept entirely. To establish construct validity we must demonstrate both what a test measures and what it doesn’t measure.  Convergent validity: Establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to other tests of the same construct or to tests to related constructs in order to establish what the test measures.  Discriminant validity: Establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to tests of theo
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.