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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Personality Assessment.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 4: Personality Assessment Personal Assessment – the measurement of individual characteristics of a person, often through personality tests, interviews and other measures What Makes a Good Personality Test? According to all professional organizations, a good personality test is valid, reliable and specifies the conditions, population and cultures the test applies to and generalizability. Test Reliability: Generalizability Across Time, Items and Raters Reliability is a prerequisite for validity. Reliability – how consistent a measure is over time, items or raters Temporal Consistency Reliability – when an assessment gives consistent results across time, often demonstrated by test-retest reliability  Test-Retest Reliability – a measure of temporal consistency; when a test gives a consistent result from one point in time to a later point in time o Eliminates any cheating or practice effects Internal Consistency Reliability – when an assessment gives consistent results across items, demonstrated by parallel forms reliability, split-half reliability, or Cronbach’s alpha reliability  Parallel Forms Reliability – a measure of internal consistency reliability; when two or more versions of a test give consistent results  Split-Half Reliability – a measure of internal consistency reliability; when each half of a test gives consistent results  Cronbach’s Alpha (α) Reliability – a measure of internal consistency reliability; the average correlation among all possible combinations of test items taking them half at a time o Researchers rely on this today o Estimates the generalizability of the scare from one set of items to another o Correlation aim: 0.7-0.8 or even higher when comparing individuals Rater Consistency – when an assessment gives consistent results across multiple raters, often demonstrated by Interrater reliability  Interrater Reliability – measure of rater consistency; when there is agreement among raters o Measure average correlation of the raters or percentage agreement among raters Test Validity Validity – how well a test measures what it is designed to measure Tests aim to measure a Construct – an underlying concept which derives from a theory Construct Validity – when an assessment successfully measures the theoretical concept it was designed to measure Face Validity – when an assessment appears to measure the theoretical concept it was designed to measure based on the kinds of questions it contains.  Useful under 2 conditions: 1. For personnel testing or situations where the cooperation and motivation of the test-taker can affect the results of a test, such as trying harder, or more seriously if they see the test is related to the content of a job 2. When researchers are developing a new measure of a concept, they will administer their test to respondents and see which items are actually related to the trait or concept the researcher wants to measure Criterion Validity – establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to an external standard such as another personality test or some behavioural outcome Convergent Validity – establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to other tests of the same construct or to tests of related constructs in order to establish what the test measures Discriminant Validity – establishes how good an assessment is by comparing the results to tests of theoretically unrelated constructs in order to establish what the test doesn’t measure Barnum Effect – when people falsely believe that invalid personality tests are actually good measures of personality because they contain feedback so general that it applies to many people at the same time Test Generalizability Generalizability – establishes the limits of an assessment, the conditions, uses and populations for which the measure is valid. Personality Tests Types and Formats of Personality Tests Divide personality tests into two kinds: 1. Self-Report – assessments in which respondents answer questions about themselves; sometimes called objective tests. 2. Performance-Based – assessments in which people respond to unstructured stimuli, projecting their own meanings, significances, patterns, feelings, interpretations, concerns or worldviews; sometimes called projective tests. Self-Report Tests Self-report personality measures may use a dichotomous two-choice scale (Eg. T/F or Y/N) or a Likert-Typing Rating Scale – ask participants to rate their agreement (strongly agree/disagree), disagree (very little), similarity (uncharacteristic of me to characteristic of me) or frequency (never/always) using a scale, such as a 5 or 7 point scale. Forced-Choice Format – a type of self-report test in which respondents must choose their answer from among a limited number of alternatives, typically two or three.  Eg. True/False, Locus of Control Scale, Machiavellianism Scale Performance-Based Tests Eg. Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Perception Test There are 5 categories of projective techniques: 1. Association Techniques – a type of performance-based test, such as Word Association Test and Rorchach Inkblot Test, in which respondents report their reactions to ambiguous stimuli. 2. Construction Techniques – a type of performance-based test, such as the Thematic Apperception Test and the Draw-A-Person Test, in which respondents create a story or a piece of artwork in response to an ambiguous stimulus 3. Completion Techniques – a type of performance-based test, such as sentence-completion tests, in which respondents fill in the blanks with their own responses 4. Arrangement Techniques – a type of performance-based test in which respondents move objects around or choose their favourites using ambiguous stimuli. or selection of stimuli Eg. pick your favourite colour 5. Expression Techniques – a type of performance-
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