Intrapsychic foundations of personality – Chapter 8:
Attachment theory: we form emotional bonds with our caregivers, which become
mental representation ‘’ internal working model ‘’ of all future relations. Our feelings
from the past signify the type of relationship we will have with people especially if they
are similar to our caregivers – personality characteristics and behavior.
Therefore, we form mental representations of ourselves, others and our relationships
based on our past experiences. For example boy meets girl, boy breaks girls heart... girl
does not trust no boy.
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis: Instinct = connection between mind + body
Much of Freud theories were based on many scientists like Darwin. He believed that the
body required energy to perform bodily functions (blood circulation, respiration,
muscular activity) and so can be said for the mind. Mind = psychic energy, it fuels
thinking, imagining and remembering. It must be conserved, neither created nor
destroyed and the mind + body energy work together to form a mental representation of
a physical/bodily need.
Impulses = instinct : something that needs to be satisfied, ‘’ itch’’ and you can choose to
gratify them, deny them, turn them into something acceptable or ignore them.
Life instincts – Eros Death instincts – Thanatos
- survival of the species concerned - aggression, most psychologist
with food, water, air and sex = libido. reject this explanation. Overall Freud has
Freud would say sex was important but emphasized aggression and sex, stating
others would say relationships and self that we are so overwhelmed by it we just
esteem. show them in socially acceptable ways. For
the rest of the energy that we cannot show
socially, they are expressed unconsciously.
Freud stated that unacceptable urges leak into our conscious thoughts through many
Free association: just like hypnosis, a therapist sits behind his client who feels
somewhat relaxed and expresses whatever concerns comes to his mind. This
method is thought to believe that the patient will most likely reveal unconscious
thoughts. For example Freud picking of the fork over the hammer. The
association of the fork = child, hammer = hysterical woman, misdiagnosed.
Dream analysis: ‘’ the interpretation of dream is the royal road to knowledge of
the unconscious activities of the mind’’. Detailed examination of the content and symbolism of a dream in order to decipher their hidden, unconscious meaning.
He stated that we when are asleep our safety value allows a control release of
unconscious tension built up by our instincts. That is why when we are asleep
our unconscious dreams and thoughts make themselves known. On waking
many people are able to express what they saw in their dream = manifest
content. What others can make from their dreams in terms of understanding =
Parapraxes (mistakes caused by unconscious desires): mistakes in speaking and
action: thoughts and deeds. Freud believed that nothing is forgotten, misplaced,
hidden, or whatsoever. Rather, they are to reveal our hidden desires.
- Freudian slip : mistake speech, others argue that people may make mistakes
because of certain thoughts not rel