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Chapter 3

Personality psychology chapter 3.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

Personality Psychology Chapter 3Can you judge someones personality from his or her handshakeYes you can Method Each experimenter shook hands with the participant on arrival and departure twice in all for each participant experimenters two men and two women were trained extensively to rate handshakes on various scales including strength grip dryness temperature vigor duration eye contact and texture training took about a month for the experimenters to standardize and validate their judgments Participants took a version of the Big Five Inventory which measured their personalities on the five factorsRESULTS men had firmer handshakes than women and that personality for three of the five factors was significantly correlated with this Firm Handshake Composite Chaplin et al 2000Neurotic participants tended to have a weak handshake whereas those who were more emotionally stable had a firmer handshake In addition extraverts had a firmer handshake than introvertscorrelation between handshake and Openness for women only such that women who had a firmer handshake were more open to experience than women with a softer handshakeOur personality is expressed in many aspects of our lives from our way of interacting with others to the kinds of music we enjoy to the kinds of careers we choose What is missing from the five factorsResponses such as exhausted good time manager athletic handy and beautiful Where do these fall on the five factors Some critics have claimed that the five factors are complete and can account for even these unusual traits SaucierGoldberg 1998Paunonen 2002 even created the Supernumerary Personality Inventory to measure these factors Just for the record these clusters also fall outside the sixfactor HEXACO modelIs intelligence a personality traitCognitive abilities are not considered personality traits Raymond Cattell identified ability traits such as memory mathematical ability and intelligence Cattell 1946 So is intelligence considered a personality trait todayOpenness as consisting of sophistication artistic and intellectual interests and intelligence However other studies find that adjectives such as intelligent knowledgeable andcultured load on a Conscientiousness factorintelligence they are generally thinking of intelligent rational and logical clearminded mature and similar adjectivesthose are personality descriptors that are clearly different from cognitive ability or IQ which is what we generally think of when we think of intelligenceTend to think that people who are productive motivated hardworking and wellorganized people as having academic intelligence even though they do not score as such on IQ tests Emotional intelligenceindividual differences in how people perceive and process information about the social worldIs religiosity a personality traitIndividual differences in how people perceive and process information about the social world Some psychologists call this emotional intelligence75 in some pollsspirituality is more than a belief an attitude a demographic a tradition or a habit It is a core part of who they areSaucier and Goldberg 1998 suggested that religiosity like many dimensions beyond the five factors is more appropriately considered a secondary trait applicable for certain purposes but not a core aspect of personality Researchers consistently find correlations between religiosity and Agreeableness Conscientiousness and sometimes Openness and Extraversion depending on the aspect of religiosity under studyspiritual transcendence the ability of individuals to stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger more objective perspective Piedmont 1999 p 988 spiritual transcendence includes a personal search for a greater connection rather than a spiritual encounter with a higher being Piedmont and his colleagues designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale STS after first meeting with experts from various faiths including Buddhism Hinduism Quakerism Lutheranism Catholicism and Judaism Piedmont 1999 PiedmontLeach 2002 The scale has three facetso Prayer Fulfillment feelings of joy and contentedness from connection with the transcendent o Universality seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harms all o Connectedness feeling belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude for others across generations and across social groupsdiscovered that scores on each of the three transcendence scales were only slightly related to scores on the five factors as measured by both adjectival scales and by scores on the NEOPIRfactor analysis yielded six independent factors five for each of the five factors and one for spiritual transcendence Together this suggests that spiritual transcendence is a dimension of personality separate from the five factors of personalityscores on the STS predicted scores on measures of life outcomes beyond the five factors and in some cases the effect of spirituality was stronger than the effect of personality
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