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Chapter 6-10

PSYB30 Textbook and lectures notes (Ch.6-10)

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Connie Boudens

Ch6 GeneticsDefinition of clinical depressionDebilitating combination of profound sadnessLoss of interest in former pleasurable activities Lack of energy hopelessnessGenetic mechanism of depressionStudied by Haeffel et al with boys ordered by court for delinquent detentionLooked for genetic and environment differences between youths who depressed and notFound no impact of genesenvironment on rates of depressionGenotypes Genetic makeup which code for specific traits Different result obtained when divided samples according to genotypesi Youth had both stressful environment and Genotype 3 High chance of being in depressioniiYouth with any 3 genotypes without maternal rejection Maternal rejection with Genotype12 Not likely developing clinical depressionCombination of environment Maternal and Genetics predicted related outcomesBehavioral genetics Study of genetic and environmental contribution to individuals difference in personality and behavior Nature and Nurture as Allies Human behaviors is an inextricable combination of both genetics and environment Nature and nurture transact Genes and environment can work separately or together or influence one another May operate separately but in parallel to influence personalities Worked as coactors Genotypeenvironment interaction Combination of nature and nurtureEnvironment may have different effects on people depending on their specific genetic makeupDifferent small components together can form something fundamentally different Genotypeenvironment correlationPeople change environments or environments change a personCannot separate out the impacts of genes on environment inextricably combined Phenotypes The manifestation of genesObservable physicalpsychological trait which coded by genesPhenotypeGenotypeEnvironmentGeneenvironment interactionGeneenvironment correlation Gene and Environment as CoactorsHeritability 2 Heritabilityh Amount of observed individual differencesIn some characteristic can be accounted for by genetic differences Refer to differences across a grouppopulation of peopleNot to difference between specific peopleCannot know is geneenvironment contributes more to personality of particular person can know how each account for differences in particular personality characteristic of particularsample of people Refers to inheritance of particular traits in particular population at particular time Estimate differ depending on exact sample and methods used by researchers Estimate vary between samples and to specific population eg Different genetic components on height in different countries 80 of genetic component of height inheritance in US65 of genetic component of height inheritance in China and Western AfricaHave genetic variation among ethnic groupshave distinct environmentsEnvironmentality 2 Enviromentality e Estimates observed individuals differences can be traced in differences in environmentsDifferences among people HeritabilityEnvironmentalityMeasurement errorGreater heritability of characteristics less the environmentaility componentEnvironmental factors influences heightChildhood nutrition Childhood malnutrition diseases are detrimental to adult heightHigher heritability estimate in equalizing environments than variable environmentEqualizing environmentenvironment that same for everybody Shared and Nonshared EnvironmentShared environment Aspects of family environment that generally the same for all child in same household Including physical psychological and social aspectsi Physical aspects Type of dwelling apartment or house layoutof computer etc ii Psychological aspects Include home atmosphere parent practices quality of siblings interaction Psychopathology in homeeg alcoholism drug usedepression iii Social variables Include socioeconomic status family structure educational attainment of parentsUrbanritual settings and religion Anything not accounted for by genetics that makes relative similarNonShared environment Includes experiences which make them different from one anotheri Unique experience within familyBeing eldestonly boyspacing of siblings ii Unique experience outside family Peers teachers sports hobbies Most environmental influences are part of the nonshared varietyFamily members resemble one another is more due to heredity Aspect of environment for personality development do not appear to be shared by family members May due to the parents treated children differently depending on their personalities Provide a unique environment for each child Effect of schools neighborhoods and communities are labeled as shared family experiencesRichard Rose Studied sample of identical twins and nonidentical twins Along with kids from same neighborhood school and classroom as each of the twins Estimate 1Separate effects of geneticsBetween identical and nonidentical twins2Separate effects of familial environment Comparing twins with matched control classmate3Effects of nonfamilial environment Compare control kids from same classes to one another4 Effects of personal environment Compare kids from different neighborhoods to one anotherFinn Twin Studies Longitudinal study of the samesex twinsEach member of twin pair was matched to child of same sex from same school Estimate amount of variance in kids selfreported behaviors due to geneticsfamilialschoolpersonalenvironmentVariances of smoking saying prayers have greater effect on shared environment than shared genesAlcohol use Both shared environment and shared genes are impactedeg Drinking with peers but without parents aroundNeighborhood has more impact than householdUnique unshared environment was more import for participation in church activitiesGreatest influences from families smallest impact from geneticsEstimating Heritability Estimate heritability of characteristic by seeing people who have similar genes show similar characteristicsStrong genetic componentsshare 100 of their gene in identical twins Two kinds of twinsi Monozygotic twins MZ Exact genetic duplicates of each other share 100 of their genesSingle fertilized egg splits into two identical parts and each develops into fetus ii Dizygotic twins DZ Two zygotes develop in utero at the same time genetically distinct Result from fertilization of 2 different eggs by 2 different sperms Not more alike than ordinary siblings sharing about 50 of genes Calculating correlation r between twins on given traits to measure heritability Compare correlation between MZ twins and DZ twins 2 h 2 rr Double the difference between correlation mzdzRaised identical twins in different environment to estimate heritabilityMZA Twins Monozygotic twins raised apartIf a characteristic scored similarlyHas a strong genetic componentPowerful in disentangling the effects of genes and environments 2h rto estimate heritability MZADoublethe difference method Assumes twins were reared under equal environmentAssume people have not treated MZ twins more alike than DZ twins both MZ DZ twins are treated differently
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